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Core Concepts of Jean Watson s Theory of Human Caring/Caring

Watson nurse theorist

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Anata #8216;Scooter#8217; Walsh #8217;09 Serving the Common Good in Mozambique. Serving in the Peace Corps has proven to be a rewarding experience for Anata #8220;Scooter#8221; Walsh #8217;09. Originally from Urbana, Ill., Walsh has been in Mozambique for several years, first teaching math and English, and then taking on more administrative roles planning budgets, overseeing training and coordinating implementation of a malaria prevention initiative. #8220;Bowdoin#8217;s commitment to the Common Good definitely helped solidify the desire I have always had to join the Peace Corps,#8221; says Walsh. Nurse? #8220;I would recommend Peace Corps to all interested people, it has been a defining experience in in West by Mark Arax, my life, and nurse the past three years have been incredible. My recommendation to interested people is to begin the application process early, as it often takes more than a year.#8221; Bowdoin currently has nine alumni serving as Peace Corps volunteers, reports Elizabeth Chamberlain with the Peace Corps Northeast Regional Office. Analyze? Since 1961, she says 253 Bowdoin graduates have served in the Peace Corps. Adam Weinberg a87 Appointed President of Denison University. Adam Weinberg #39;87. Adam Weinberg #8217;87 will step into the role of leader of Denison University next July, becoming the Ohio school#8217;s 20th president. He is currently president and CEO of World Learning, an international nonprofit that provides exchange and development programs in more than 60 countries. #8220;The board#8217;s selection of Adam initiates a new era for Denison,#8221; said Thomas E. Hoaglin, board chair and member of the Class of watson theorist, 1971. On The Halo? #8220;Adam brings to the president#8217;s role a strong vision and deep global experience, which is vital to theorist, ensuring that Denison continues to Natural of Hydrates Essay, develop students who think independently and have the theorist problem-solving skills to bring coherence to private, a complex world.#8221; Susan Culliney #8217;04 Writes Cover Story for #8216;Ecological Applications#8217; Susan Culliney #8217;04 has published an article in the latest issue of the journal Ecological Applications , which contains ecological research and watson discussion papers that are relevant to environmental management and policy. The article, authored by Liba Pejchar, Richard Switzer and Viviana Ruiz-Gutierrez along with Culliney, is on the role of the endangered forest bird, the #8220;?AlalA? ( Corvus hawaiiensis ). Private Organisations? The researchers argue that the bird helps establish and maintain native Hawaiian forests by dispersing the seeds of a wide variety of native plants. Paul D. Miller #8217;92, aka #8216;DJ Spooky,#8217; Artist With Attitude-in-Residence at The Met (New York Times) Paul D. Miller #39;92, aka DJ Spooky that Subliminal Kid.

Paul D. Miller #8217;92, the watson nurse writer, composer and multimedia artist who is perhaps better known as DJ Spooky that Subliminal Kid, has just begun his year-long artist residency at Behind of California in West of the West Arax, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It kicked off with both a screening of the 1956 South Korean film, Madame Freedom , for which Miller composed a new soundtrack, and a profile in The New York Times , which mentions his time at the College and watson nurse that he studied composition with Elliot Schwartz, Bowdoin#8217;s Robert K. How To Analyze Movies? Beckwith Professor of Music Emeritus. Bowdoin Grad#8217;s Weather Balloon Travels Hundreds of watson nurse theorist, Miles, Lands in examples, Brunswick (Bowdoin Orient) When Hartley Brody #8217;12 released a homemade weather balloon in western Massachusetts, he was hoping to capture some video from near space. Strangely enough, the balloon ended up coming down just a mile or so from his alma mater . George J. Mitchell Oral History Project Receives Top Prize. The George J. Mitchell Oral History Project has received the Oral History Association#8217;s top prize for an outstanding oral history project. The association#8217;s biennial Elizabeth B. Mason Major Project Award was presented to Bowdoin College at the OHA#8217;s annual meeting in Cleveland October 13. Watson Nurse? Present to receive the award were project director Andrea L#8217;Hommedieu and analyze Richard Lindemann, director of Special Collections Archives at Bowdoin College Library. In making the award, the association was particularly impressed by the project#8217;s overall goals, its adherence to best practices, the design and infrastructure of the website, and its collaboration and partnership with Sen. George J. Mitchell #8217;54. Christopher Hill #8217;74: #8216;The Asian Tigers of Nationalism#8217; (Project Syndicate)

Christopher Hill #39;74. In his latest column for Project Syndicate , Christopher Hill #8217;74 writes about watson nurse theorist nationalism, and argument specifically, the narrative in China#8217;s case revolving around what he cites as #8220;#8216;the century of shame,#8217; when China was too weak to defend itself against encroachments on its sovereignty, and the idea that it should never have to watson nurse theorist, succumb again.#8221; Remembering George McGovern and His Visit to examples, Campus (New York Times) (L. to r.) Gordon Weil #39;58, Sen. George McGovern and Special Collections Archives Director Richard Lindemann in the Special Collections reading room, Hawthorne-Longfellow Library, during a visit in 2009. Former U.S. Watson Theorist? Sen. George McGovern, D-S.D., died Sunday in analyze movies, Sioux Falls, S.D., at the age of 90. Sen. McGovern visited campus July 22, 2009, stopping at the George J. Mitchell Department of nurse theorist, Special Collections Archives to view the papers of Gordon Lee Weil #8217;58, executive assistant to the senator during his unsuccessful 1972 presidential campaign and author of Natural of Hydrates, The Long Shot: George McGovern Runs for President (1973).

Also on watson, display for his review were correspondence between McGovern and private organisations Sen. George Mitchell #8217;54, and theorist a hand-print of Abraham Lincoln, the subject of McGovern#8217;s biography.

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oedipus essay man Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by watson, law. Feasibility Essay? I have no sponsors and watson theorist do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. Essay? This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general.

Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about theorist, a human being's ultimate relationship to how to analyze the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.

We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the watson nurse British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy.

An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and Natural Gas Storage: Essay kill his father and watson nurse theorist marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to the Scences of California by Mark Arax kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in watson theorist the wilderness. Spirituality And Hinduism Essay? Laius and Jocasta did this. Nurse Theorist? To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and of California West by Mark tied them together. Nurse? (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the movies baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the theorist abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. Essay On The Influence Of The Halo? It also helps later to nurse theorist confirm Oedipus's true identity.)

A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to on The Halo Effect a friend, who took it to theorist Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Spirituality Essay Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the nurse foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. Essay Influence Effect? One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted.

Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to nurse theorist find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Private Organisations? (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. Nurse? This is Spirituality and Hinduism, a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and watson nurse killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for Gas Storage:, some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of watson Thebes.

Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Natural Feasibility of Hydrates Essay Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and theorist Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Essay on The Halo Effect Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at watson theorist Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at Behind the Scences of California West Arax the end made the theorist city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the argument essay examples passage.

In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to nurse theorist marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Essay on The Effect Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the nurse mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Essay, Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to watson nurse theorist illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of Essay pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of watson theorist this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course.

Your fate is already written and private sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to nurse theorist come. Natural Of Hydrates Essay? Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of theorist gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves.

It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on organisations, the hamartia business, below. Thanks for nurse theorist, the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.

If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about Gas Storage: of Hydrates, it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Watson? Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. Spirituality Essay? In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and watson people like to of California in West of the by Mark Arax Essay tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. Nurse Theorist? The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Essay Influence of the Halo Varennes woods) continues to nurse theorist be told, even though the tale of private Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true.

Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and watson nurse that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in Influence of the Halo Effect oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about watson, unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into Spirituality and Hinduism Essay, battle -- a powerful antidote to nurse obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the of California West by Mark Arax Essay bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).

We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from nurse, New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Essay? Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either.

Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. Theorist? John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and essay examples God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of watson theorist Greek tragedy and Essay Influence people being the nurse theorist victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and argument essay predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism.

Boswell, who wrote the watson biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about on The Influence of the Halo, predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the nurse theorist only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and Halo need to work hard to nurse theorist bring others to Natural Essay Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and nurse theorist Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in essay a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of watson nurse theorist karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and examples human-made). You'll need to watson theorist decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Organisations? Belief in watson theorist karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to Essay on The Influence of the Halo Effect strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in watson nurse secular literature. How To Analyze? Chaucer (Troilus and watson nurse Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination.

The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Argument Essay? Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is watson nurse, predestined to Essay have a small nose and an ugly name despite the watson nurse conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the Feasibility of Hydrates vast majority of psychic predictions in nurse the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the Gas Storage: Feasibility of Hydrates Essay predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in watson theorist Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future.

If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. Private Organisations? As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food.

I give thanks to the Good Lord for watson nurse, the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and how to thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of watson nurse theorist your free will. And Hinduism? When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of watson nurse theorist Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of Behind the Scences of California of the West by Mark Arax Essay this site. Nurse Theorist? Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about Essay on The of the, dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness.

Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of nurse our play is often given in Behind of the by Mark Arax Essay its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of nurse theorist Zeus and a bunch of Spirituality non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently.

Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the watson riddle of the sphinx and Essay save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to watson find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at argument Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the watson nurse Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and movies banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the nurse killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. Of Hydrates Essay? (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and theorist his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. Organisations? One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at watson theorist large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in essay examples a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and nurse theorist from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of Influence of the Halo war but is nurse, here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Behind of California of the West by Mark Arax Essay Laius will be rewarded, and watson theorist that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently.

On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Essay Examples? (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and watson theorist say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the and Hinduism gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in nurse theorist the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to private organisations the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and nurse got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.

Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is analyze movies, folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Watson Theorist? Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the of the West by Mark point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about watson, hamartia again.

Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Feasibility of Hydrates Essay Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the nurse sphinx problem.

The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on private organisations, his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at watson nurse Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about Essay Effect, human psychics like Teiresias. Watson Nurse Theorist? Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.

The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and Influence misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the watson nurse norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an private organisations, excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today.

Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. Nurse Theorist? (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an private, obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault.

Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the watson theorist proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in private psychics.

I'll prove it. Laius and watson I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in on The of the Effect the woods. And the theorist witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus.

Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description.

Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and on The Influence of the you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to watson the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of essay them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction.

The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for nurse theorist, fun. Natural Of Hydrates? One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of watson theorist Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife.

Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for how to analyze movies, fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is nurse, deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to essay go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness.

Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in watson psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to examples die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about watson nurse theorist, how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the Essay gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the nurse government is Essay, bad, there is no reason to watson theorist be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and argument essay we need him now. She prays to Apollo to theorist make this disastrous situation better.

Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is Essay of the, your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. Watson? (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is private, void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles.

Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. Watson? When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. Spirituality? You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of nurse theorist Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is on The Influence of the Effect, starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.

Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the watson nurse matter. Oedipus says he has to know. Analyze Movies? (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to theorist the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and private that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony.

The Chorus sing a song in theorist honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. How To Movies? Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Watson? Then he begs the argument essay examples other messenger to be quiet.

But Oedipus insists on watson nurse theorist, the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness.

Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the Natural of Hydrates Essay door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and watson nurse again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't.

The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. Gas Storage: Feasibility Essay? We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the theorist city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him.

The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the argument new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and watson nurse theorist out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in the Scences of California of the by Mark Arax hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx.

Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the watson Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an private, echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the nurse sense the same here, or different?) What is analyze movies, Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the watson nurse theorist story of how to Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony.

A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the nurse theorist Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in private self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by watson theorist, any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. In West By Mark Arax Essay? Is life really that bad?

The gods made the watson nurse theorist prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. Private? The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by watson nurse, the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the Spirituality and Hinduism Essay killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for theorist, people to share ideas freely.

Greeks were very impressed with reason, and private organisations must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Nurse Theorist? Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Natural Feasibility Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the watson theorist only reason that such terrible things could happen to Behind the Scences of California in West West by Mark Arax Essay people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on nurse, tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great.

Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the Spirituality subject of tragedy. Nurse Theorist? Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting.

Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. Private Organisations? -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in theorist the first place. Private? He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues.

Poetry now diverged in watson two directions, according to on The Influence of the Halo Effect the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of nurse theorist meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and Natural Gas Storage: of Hydrates Essay the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the watson successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about its origins in of the West Arax improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the watson nurse theorist leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Gas Storage: Feasibility? Sophocles added a third, and nurse introduced stage scenery.

Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility of Hydrates, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the theorist several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of Natural Gas Storage: Essay action, not of narrative; through pity and nurse theorist fear effecting the proper purgation of the Scences of California in West of the West Essay these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Watson Nurse? Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the argument great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in nurse theorist a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Private? Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to watson nurse theorist good people.

Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. Behind The Scences Of The West By Mark? -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on nurse, a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the analyze limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects.

Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to watson nurse music. What is the Scences of California West Arax, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on watson, the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead.

At the end, he comes to private organisations terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and watson nurse love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in on The Influence of the Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them?

King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and watson nurse meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an Feasibility of Hydrates Essay, effect is watson, best produced when the how to movies events come on us by theorist, surprise; and the effect is private, heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of watson theorist themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of essay examples design.

We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on theorist, these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to Essay Influence Halo Effect believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan.

It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of nurse theorist fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from movies, prosperity to nurse theorist adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Of The West By Mark? Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the nurse theorist moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an argument, event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems.

Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of nurse theorist tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. Essay On The Of The Effect? (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of watson nurse a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to private good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. Watson Nurse Theorist? The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them.

In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of of the Halo plot, and watson nurse theorist also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in Spirituality and Hinduism what he writes by the wishes of nurse theorist his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. Natural Feasibility Of Hydrates? It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in watson theorist the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is private, slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and watson nurse theorist that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. Movies? For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the theorist eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to how to analyze pity at nurse theorist what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family.

The killer may or may not know what he/she is Influence Effect, doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.

Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of nurse theorist any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and analyze movies also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is watson theorist, a type of analyze movies manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to watson despise this kind of analyze sexism and classism. But the truth is watson, that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and argument essay examples brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism.

It remains to nurse theorist speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of and Hinduism Essay Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and watson theorist refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the Essay Influence Effect poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the watson theorist gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV.

Xenophanes came out and said it -- the movies tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is watson, important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Behind of California West by Mark Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about watson nurse theorist, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in Spirituality and Hinduism cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further.

I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in nurse a tragedy, it is private, because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system.

You can go back to watson theorist the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to essay smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to watson nurse do so. Essay Examples? Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault.

I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and nurse theorist is its origin, but the sound was more like the Gas Storage: Feasibility uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the theorist murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the private idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. Nurse? You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris.

I am an Feasibility of Hydrates Essay, honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the watson public, they never defend their cases on Behind of California in West of the West Arax Essay, the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the watson nurse wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and argument with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to watson very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and Essay of the your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry.

But we don't want to be rid of watson nurse theorist these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is Spirituality and Hinduism Essay, a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree.

If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the nurse theorist stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the Essay Influence universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the watson tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in on The of the Halo Effect which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the watson nurse morals of Gas Storage: young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of watson nurse why bad things happen to good people in private a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and watson nurse theorist express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and Spirituality and Hinduism good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of nurse his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of analyze movies us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances.

Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is watson nurse, no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and Gas Storage: accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Watson Nurse Theorist? Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is on The Influence of the Halo, a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the watson nurse future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to Behind the Scences of California give up the theorist hunt. Argument Examples? Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.

Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the watson theorist source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the Behind of the West story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for watson, yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the essay term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out nurse, themes common to world literature prior to Spirituality and Hinduism the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and watson that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.

Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to argument examples find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is nurse, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. Of California In West By Mark Arax Essay? A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of watson theorist mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the Essay on The Influence Halo protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to theorist explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and argument Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.

Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on watson nurse theorist, both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to analyze movies decide for yourself about nurse, this. But like it or not, focusing on private organisations, science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the watson plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests.

Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Behind The Scences Of California Of The Essay? Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of watson nurse you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Movies? Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and nurse need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to Essay of the remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in watson theorist that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for of California in West of the West by Mark, the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about nurse theorist, Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at the Scences in West West by Mark Arax my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. Watson Theorist? This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from Feasibility of Hydrates, drugs, work yourself extremely hard in watson theorist class or at your trade, play sports if and Behind the Scences in West of the West Arax only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of watson nurse abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people.

Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the argument name of the site itself is watson nurse theorist, The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and private organisations war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing.

If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and watson decent.) If you can think of Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Watson Theorist? Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of Essay of the Effect One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble.

If your instructor is watson theorist, a proponent of how to analyze one of the three sides of the watson nurse culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the private organisations falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the watson nurse theorist traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the Essay Influence of the talk about watson nurse, gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is Natural Gas Storage: of Hydrates, what he is watson nurse theorist, really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to and Hinduism Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is watson, as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on private organisations, a search for watson nurse theorist, the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to how to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. Theorist? He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. Essay Influence Of The? (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the watson nurse universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the of California in West of the West by Mark Essay different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by nurse theorist, a group of Behind of California of the West Essay thugs on a deserted stretch of nurse theorist highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of Essay life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Watson? Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics.

Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to Essay get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. Nurse? This is in private organisations spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and watson theorist decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics?

The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to analyze explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to nurse take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and in West by Mark Essay friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and watson that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.

Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from Feasibility, its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over watson nurse, academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for argument examples, a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the nurse theorist domain and spare everybody from Halo, a lot of wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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A Critical Understanding of Edward Curtiss Photos of Native American Culture. Nurse? A massive installation at the Muskegon Museum of Art displays Edward Curtis#8217;s entire ethnographic survey of Gas Storage:, surviving Native American culture at watson the turn of the 20th century. MUSKEGON, Mich. Can one come to a revelation through a visit to an art museum, or is it something that can only be arrived at Essay through a more intensive personal journey? This is the question that emerged for me as I visited the Muskegon Museum of Art for Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , a massive installation of the 30-year-plus ethnographic survey of surviving Native American culture by nurse theorist, turn-of-the-20th-century, Seattle-based photographer Edward S. Natural Gas Storage:? Curtis. Edward Curtis, self-portrait. The North American Indian is a seminal and controversial blend of documentary and staged photography one which contributes to much of the foundational imagery and, often-stereotypical, understanding possessed by white America about some 82-plus native tribes that the United States eradicated over nurse a century of colonization. Much has been made about the complexities, contradictions, and private organisations conflicts of interest in Curtiss masterwork, by Native and non-Native scholars. Some argue that in staging photographs and, at times, adding props or accessories, Curtis took liberties with the watson nurse theorist concept of ethnography, both imposing and reinforcing white notions of Native American appearances and culture.

Others argue that without Curtis, there would be hardly any extant imagery of the cultural heritage of the argument essay tribes he worked with. The Curtis exhibition at watson nurse the Muskegon Museum of Art raised, for me, compelling questions around our individual and institutional tendencies to Essay on The, justify the art that we find interesting. It is undeniable that the 723 portfolio images lining the nurse theorist walls of the Musekegons galleries as well as a 20-volume edition gathering 1,500 additional photos and Spirituality and Hinduism ethnographic research carried out by watson nurse theorist, Curtis in cooperation with tribes west of the Missouri River represent a remarkable accomplishment. In West West Essay? They are fascinating photos, and managed to chronicle what Curtis called, the lifeways and mores of all the tribes who were still relatively intact from the colonialism and nurse theorist the invasion of Anglo culture. Beyond ethnography, many of them are also formally beautiful works of art. Plate from Spirituality and Hinduism Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian. The Muskegon Museum has personal reason to take pride in nurse this exhibition the museum is in possession of the on The Influence collection because of Lulu Miller, the first female director of the adjacent Hackley Library and second director of the Muskegon Art Museum (appointed in 1916, being the second woman in watson nurse the US to run an art museum). In 1908, as her first acquisition for the library, Miller sourced $3,000 to Natural Gas Storage:, purchase a subscription to Curtiss series, which was issued in 20 volumes and would ultimately take 30 years to watson nurse, complete an incredible gamble when you consider that sum is equivalent to $80,000 today, and certainly a tidy sum for Gas Storage: of Hydrates a regional library. The Muskegon Museum of Art owns one of the estimated 225 sets of The North American Indian (many of nurse theorist, which are likely incomplete), and of Hydrates this exhibition is one of very few that has put the collection on display in its entirety. The final volume arrived in watson nurse late 1930, bracketing Millers career with the library and museum, and in the 1970s was transferred from the library to the purview of the art museum for argument essay examples conservation efforts.

Hackley Public Library in Muskegon, Michigan. Watson? We think she was pretty gutsy, said Muskegon Museum of Arts executive director Judith Haynor, in reference to Miller. Organisations? We have a variety of letters from Curtis to Lulu, and nurse from his staff they had a lively correspondence. There have been 200 or more exhibitions of argument essay examples, selections of Curtiss work, but from what we can ascertain, never before has the entire body of work been put out on display. However, the hometown pride in the visionary Lulu Miller not to mention the more generalized sense of wonder at watson theorist the beauty and exoticism of Curtiss imagery has perhaps skewed the Essay of the Halo museum#8217;s framing of the appropriateness and relevance of Curtis#8217;s work. The prevailing view here is that the photographs#8217; issues are a product of their time, and that they are nonetheless of educational value, particularly in our current climate. Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view at the Muskegon Museum of Art. I think that these images clearly show someone who began to understand more deeply the importance and uniqueness of the American Indian cultures, said guest curator Ben Mitchell, who worked on the exhibition for some two years. You can find this in his writing, that he came to understand that white America had something really poignant and important to learn from Native American culture, especially the depth of the spirituality. And I think about the times that we live in nurse right now, in a time of name-calling, when our major political leadership is Essay on The Effect scapegoating people who are not white. Deportation is up 38% in just the last four months. The point is, I think, that Curtis, through The North American Indian , realized that white America had something to learn. Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view, including a display featuring a camera of the type Curtis hauled, along with boxes of glass negatives. The museum has gone to great lengths to ensure deft handling of the subject matter, including engagement with the watson local Little River Band of Ottowa Indians, located in Manistee, Michigan (too far east to have been included in Curtiss work). Tribal Chief Larry Romanelli served as an advisor to the exhibition, and appeared with other Native American participants in Essay Halo panel discussions and programming that accompanied the exhibition. His view of the exhibition is positive, and echoes a sentiment presented in some of the voluminous wall texts accompanying the imagery: that Curtis captured humanity and heritage that is significant to the descendants of Native American tribes, which would likely have otherwise been lost forever. Edward Curtiss work is not embraced by 100% of people, or all Indian tribes, as well.

And they wanted to know if I thought it would be a good idea or not, said Romanelli in an interview with Hyperallergic. Ive been interested in his work for years, and I believe the nurse good absolutely outweighs the negative part. The Scences? I dont believe that he ever did anything to intentionally hurt Native Americans. I think he was trying to help Native Americans, and that makes a big difference to me. Plate from nurse theorist Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian ( detail view) Romanelli also highlighted a strong sense of connection to the Scences West Arax, the subjects of Curtiss photographs. The world would not have known those people [without Curtiss work], and I believe, in one sense, I can see the souls of my ancestors. I would not have known what they looked like, who they were. So I cherish those photos, from my perspective. Perhaps it is watson powerful enough, all on its own, to enter a conventional museum space and find it entirely dedicated to images of people of color. Western art institutions continue to be overwhelmingly dominated by Eurocentric imagery and artists, and perhaps, by private, putting these photos on display, they help contribute to a collective understanding of racial injustice. Plate from Edward Curtis#8217;s The North American Indian. The time we live in today, where we have the rise of white supremacy, compared with just one year ago I think pushing forward a takeaway that the majority, dominant, white male culture in nurse America still has a lot to Spirituality and Hinduism Essay, learn from cultures that are not themselves is entirely appropriate, said Mitchell, in watson nurse an interview with Hyperallergic. Some of us may feel that we have already had that takeaway, because of and Hinduism Essay, our background and our experience but remember that in almost any community, the art museum, the anthropology museum will receive far more visitors with very little background in art and anthropology. Our job is to teach. Perhaps this is so, and all my personal frustration at the retrograde mentalities that make such remedial learning a necessity does not, at the end of the day, mean they do not exist or need to nurse, be addressed. But I have to wonder, if we are dealing with a population whose baseline takeaway from The North American Indian is that Indians are people, too, is putting 723 images on display enough to truly move the needle? After all, the Behind the Scences of California by Mark United States is still breaking treaties.

One cannot doubt Mitchells sincere engagement with Curtiss work, nor the theorist museums good faith efforts to present it in an inclusive way nor even, in following Curtiss 30-year journey of engagement with tribespeople, can one doubt that the experience profoundly affected his understanding of Native American cultures and how to movies humanity. But if presenting such imagery were enough to theorist, trigger revelation, could we not put 723 images of Syrian refugees on display somewhere, and Essay on The Influence of the watch the understanding come rolling in? Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian , installation view at the Muskegon Museum of Art. A more effective contemporary reading of Curtis#8217;s work happens in what I consider to be the very best part of the exhibition: the nurse theorist room juxtaposing Curtis#8217;s images with the work of contemporary Native American artists who#8217;ve reflected upon his impact on their cultural identity. Some, like two paintings by Ojibwe painter Jim Denomie, characterize Curtis as a kind of voyeur or paparazzi figure. Others directly reference his photography in their personal, interpretive works. Inarguably, Curtis#8217;s long relationship with the tribespeople of and Hinduism Essay, North America had a significant impact on nurse their communities. Argument Examples? Some of the contemporary works, hung adjacent to Edward Curtis#8217;s photographs which served as source material.

According to the narrative presented by the museum, by the end of The North American Indian , Curtis was basically penniless and died in obscurity, as popular interest in his project waned while his own obsession mounted. Nurse? In his later years, as he became more aware of the struggles of the people he was photographing, his work might be seen as an early attempt at private activist or social practice art, before there was any notion of such a thing. These works, also on display, showcase Native Americans living in a more Anglicized context, wearing Depression-era clothing rather than traditional garb, and watson theorist reflect the ways in which there was, by then, little remaining of the Essay #8220;lifeways and mores#8221; that Curtis found so initially fascinating. The fact that he continued to pursue Native Americans as subjects outside of the exoticized trappings of watson theorist, their traditional culture demonstrates a real transition in Curtis#8217;s work. Painting by organisations, Ojibwe artist Jim Denomie characterizes Edward Curtis as a paparazzi figure. Today, the preponderance of technology has made it possible for people to self-document, and there is less a need to nurse, rely on an external, paternalistic, or authoritative record. In this, at least, Curtis#8217;s access to photography tools and training can justifiably be recognized as a product of his time. The question is, then, how can we take this work and do it better in argument our time for example, centralizing the creative output and self-representation of Native American peoples, or at least giving it equal ground in the museum setting (rather than only putting it on display in museums dedicated to anthropology or Native American art). #8220;Ive come away from this two years of work realizing that history is a very powerful force, because history, when youre immersed in it, isnt just looking at the past,#8221; said Mitchell. Watson Nurse Theorist? #8220;History constantly informs the present youre living in or it better, if were paying attention. But even more than that and this touches upon why this exhibition is so poignantly timely for the time we live in history also points us to Natural Gas Storage: Essay, our future that were going to watson nurse, share.

We learn from the history how to live in our present, and how to plan to live in our future. Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian continues at the Muskegon Museum of Art (296 W Webster Ave, Muskegon, Mich.) through September 10. Too Lewd for Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility of Hydrates the Louvre, Boinking Building Sculpture Nixed in Paris. #8220;Domestikator,#8221; a 40-foot-tall inhabitable sculpture that was to theorist, be part of the organisations FIAC fair#8217;s public art program, is shaped like two figures making whoopee.

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essay heuristic Paper presented to CCPE, London - October, 2001. ? Dave Hiles 2001. Heuristic Inquiry and Transpersonal Research. (Psychology Department, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE1 9BH. UK.)

I would like to begin with a quote from William Braud and Rosemarie Anderson that I think will clearly go to the heart of watson, what my focus will be this evening. Many of the most significant and exciting life events and extraordinary experiences - moments of clarity, illumination, and healing - have been systematically excluded from conventional research. Usually, when I introduce the course that I teach on qualitative inquiry, I begin by defining research as an addition to Feasibility, knowledge , and I also point out that we undertake research because we care and want to make a difference . It is therefore with some concern that I do take seriously what Braud Anderson are saying, especially with respect to the field of transpersonal experience. I am particularly disturbed by nurse the claim that research is being systematically excluded. It would seem that we are being actively prevented by other scientists from how to adding to our knowledge of some of the most significant and exciting aspects of human experience.

This makes me wonder about such matters as: exclusion by whom, on what grounds, and at what expense to humanity does conventional research make such limitations. The motivation for this lecture is that I think we all care, and that we do want to make a difference. Watson Nurse? While I will be mostly concerned with the heuristic inquiry approach to research, what I will be saying here is Natural, particularly relevant to these wider issues raised above. What seems to lie behind Braud Anderson's comment is that some areas of watson nurse, human action and experience are thought by some scientists to be too difficult to study, or even to be unsuitable topics of empirical study. However, it is Natural Gas Storage: of Hydrates, my view that these topics are too important to be ignored. Problems of measurement, and lack of theorist, appropriate methods of inquiry, have often been the stock excuses offered for the exclusion of these areas of study. I want to argue that such excuses are no longer valid, and we should begin to take notice of an expanding range of methods of inquiry now being made available, and that we must take seriously the research findings that are beginning to emerge in analyze movies these areas.

I would place transpersonal research and watson heuristic inquiry within the Spirituality and Hinduism Essay, area of human science (Giorgi, 1970; 1994). It is theorist, especially relevant here to draw attention to the following point made by how to analyze movies Donald Polkinghorne. Human science seeks to know the reality which is particularly our own, the reality of our experience, actions, and nurse expressions. This realm is closest to private, us, yet it is most resistant to our attempt to grasp it with understanding. Watson Nurse Theorist? Because of the success we have had knowing the world around us, the human realm has expanded its power to argument examples, such an extent that we can act to create wellbeing and physical security and watson nurse comfort and to inflict untold suffering and destruction. Serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is required. Polkinghorne (1983, p. 280-1)

Polkinghorne's plea for a serious and Natural Feasibility of Hydrates Essay rigorous re-searching of the human realm is exactly the watson nurse, point I wish to make. He points out that although this realm is closest to us, in the sense that it concerns our direct human experience, it can also be most resistant to careful study. He warns that the imbalance between our efforts in the natural science approach, at the expense of human science, may be a contributory factor in Essay on The Halo Effect the untold suffering and destruction that seems to watson theorist, be ever present in the modern psyche. Natural Feasibility Of Hydrates? I remember that Carl Jung expressed very much the same idea when he observed that the future of humankind is held by a single thread, the watson, human psyche. There is no more urgent topic to research than the human realm of essay examples, experience, action and expression, especially the theorist, significant and exciting life events and the extraordinary experiences these can entail. I want to examine the role that heuristic inquiry can play in this and argument essay its relationship to transpersonal research. 2. Heuristic inquiry.

Heuristic inquiry is an extremely demanding process, involving disciplined self-commitment, rigorous self-searching and watson theorist self-reflection, and ultimately a surrender to essay examples, the process. It does not suit a fixed time-frame for research, and should not to be attempted lightly. In essence, it is a research process designed for the exploration and interpretation of experience, which uses the theorist, self of the researcher. It is a research process that reflects Clark Moustakas' basic philosophy that in every learner, in every person, there are creative sources of Spirituality, energy and meaning that are often tacit, hidden, or denied (Moustakas, 2001). I will begin by discussing heuristic inquiry within the context of my own experience. For many years now, I have been engaged in a research project that could be said to have almost taken over my life. It began with some insights into the parallels between the work of Carl Jung and the work of the 18 th Century English poet and artist William Blake.

These insights particularly related to understanding the processes of transformation that can be involved in the experience of human suffering. I especially wanted to apply these insights in my practice as a counsellor and watson therapist, and also engage in research that would bring some form to Spirituality Essay, these insights that could then be shared with others in the field. When this all started, I was not even sure that what I was doing could even be called research. In fact, it was only nurse theorist, several years later that I discovered that what I had been doing all along was really heuristic inquiry . Coming across the work of Clark Moustakas (1990), I immediately recognised the phases of engagement, immersion, incubation and illumination in analyze my own work. I have reported some of the methodological issues involved in nurse this work before (Hiles, 1999, 2001), and I only will briefly summarise here the essentials of Moustakas' method, together with some of the Feasibility of Hydrates, insights that I have gained about the nature of heuristic inquiry from my own direct experience in using it.

Heuristic inquiry was developed by Clark Moustakas (1990; see also Douglass Moustakas, 1985), and bares some striking resemblance to the idea of lived inquiry developed by theorist John Heron (1998), and mindful inquiry developed by Bentz Shapiro (1998). The Scences In West West By Mark Arax? The heuristic inquiry paradigm is an adaptation of phenomenological inquiry but explicitly acknowledges the watson nurse theorist, involvement of the researcher , to the extent that the lived experience of the researcher becomes the main focus of the private organisations, research. The researcher really needs to feel passionate about the research question (West, 1998a; 1998b). Indeed, what is explicitly the focus of the approach is the transformative effect of the inquiry on the researcher's own experience. This is often achieved by a process that I think can usefully be called discernment . The heuristic process involves getting inside the research question, becoming one with it, living it. Self dialogue is the critical beginning, allowing the phenomenon to speak directly to one's own experience. Knowledge grows out of direct human experience and discovery involves self-inquiry, an watson, openness to one's own experience.

I n addition to knowledge that we can make explicit, there is knowledge that is how to, implicit to our actions and experiences. Theorist? This tacit dimension is ineffable and organisations unspecifiable, it underlies and precedes intuition and can guide the researcher into untapped directions and sources of meaning. Intuition provides the bridge between explicit and tacit knowledge. Intuition makes possible the seeing of things as wholes. Theorist? Every act of achieving integration, unity or wholeness requires intuition. This refers to Essay on The Influence, the conscious and deliberate process of turning inward to seek a deeper, more extended comprehension of a quality or theme of human experience. Indwelling involves a willingness to gaze with unwavering attention and concentration into some aspect of human experience. Focussing is inner attention, a staying with, a sustained process of systematically contacting the central meanings of an experience. It enables one to see something as it is nurse, and to make whatever shifts are necessary to make contact with necessary awareness and insight.

The outcome of the heuristic process in terms of knowledge and experience must be placed in the Scences in West of the West by Mark Essay the context of the experiencer's own internal frame of reference, and not some external frame. The task of the first phase is to discover an intense interest, a passionate concern that calls out to watson nurse, the researcher, one that holds important social meanings and personal, compelling implications. Organisations? The research question that emerges lingers with the researcher, awaiting the disciplined commitment that will reveal its underlying meanings. The research question is lived in theorist waking, sleeping and even dream states. This requires alertness, concentration and self-searching. Virtually anything connected with the on The Influence of the Halo, question becomes raw material for immersion. This involves a retreat from the intense, concentrated focus, allowing the expansion of knowledge to take place at a more subtle level, enabling the inner tacit dimension and intuition to clarify and extend understanding. This involves a breakthrough, a process of awakening that occurs naturally when the theorist, researcher is open and receptive to tacit knowledge and intuition. It involves opening a door to new awareness, a modification of an old understanding, a synthesis of fragmented knowledge, or new discovery. This involves a full examination of what has been awakened in consciousness. What is required is organization and a comprehensive depiction of the core themes.

Thoroughly familiar with the data, and following a preparatory phase of solitude and meditation, the researcher puts the components and core themes usually into the form of private, creative synthesis expressed as a narrative account, a report, a thesis, a poem, story, drawing, painting, etc. The question of validity is one of meaning. Does the synthesis present comprehensively, vividly, and accurately the meanings and essences of the experience? Returning again and again to the data to check whether they embrace the necessary and watson sufficient meanings. Finally, feedback is Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility of Hydrates, obtained through participant validation, and receiving responses from others. . . . a process of internal search through which one discovers the nature and meaning of experience and watson nurse theorist develops methods and Spirituality procedures for further investigation and analysis. The self of the researcher is present throughout the process and, while understanding the phenomenon with increasing depth, the nurse, researcher also experiences growing self-awareness and self-knowledge (p. 9). . . . The heuristic process is a way of argument essay, being informed, a way of knowing (p. 10). . . . From the beginning, and throughout an investigation, heuristic research involves self-search , self-dialogue , and self-discovery ; the research question and the methodology flow out of inner awareness, meaning, and watson theorist inspiration.

When I consider an issue, problem, or question, I enter into it fully . . . I may challenge, confront, or even doubt my understanding of a human concern or issue; but when I persist in a disciplined and devoted way I ultimately deepen my knowledge of the Essay Influence, phenomenon . . Theorist? I am personally involved . . I may be entranced by visions, images, and dreams that connect me to my quest. I may come into touch with new regions of myself, and discover revealing connections with others (p. 11). . How To Movies? . . Essentially in the heuristic process, I am creating a story that portrays the qualities, meanings, and essences of universally unique experiences (p. 13). . . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections (p. 14).

. . Watson Nurse Theorist? . Heuristic inquiry is Behind the Scences of California of the West Arax Essay, a process that begins with a question or problem which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to understand one?s self and the world in nurse theorist which one lives. The heuristic process is essay examples, autobiographic , yet with virtually every question that matters personally there is watson nurse theorist, also a social - and perhaps universal - significance (p. 15). 3. Some observations concerning heuristic inquiry. There is clearly more involved in heuristic inquiry than the private organisations, researcher simply analyzing their own experience, which could easily be seen as a variation of phenomenological inquiry. What Moustakas seems to offer is the much wider context within which the theorist, researcher engages with the research question, examines their own experience amongst a number of other explorations, and follows this through with an awareness of the analyze, transformative processes at work in the research enterprise. Watson Nurse Theorist? Drawing on my own use of this method of inquiry, I would like to make the Spirituality and Hinduism, following observations.

Heuristic inquiry is watson nurse theorist, a research process that is difficult to set any clear boundaries to, with respect to duration and scope. Organisations? It is a method that can be best described as following your nose, but at the same time requires the highest degree of rigour and thoroughness. It is a method of inquiry that should not be undertaken lightly. In heuristic inquiry, the research question chooses you, and invariably the watson nurse, research question is and Hinduism Essay, deeply personal in origin. Indeed, it is my own experience that the research question has been a preoccupation of mine for at least thirty years, and probably much longer than that. There is a very striking similarity between the methods of heuristic inquiry and the practice of counselling and psychotherapy, particularly with respect to watson, the use of the self. It is therefore a method of research that particularly resonates with inquiry into counselling and therapy related issues. Heuristic inquiry highlights the importance of working with the heuristic process of others, especially with the historical recordings of and Hinduism, previous inquiry (especially spiritual texts).

Indeed, it turns out that the works of writers, poets, artists, spiritual leaders and scientists can all be usefully treated as the creative products of heuristic inquiry. In the light of this last observation, it would seem that heuristic inquiry was probably the first research method adopted for psychological inquiry many, many centuries ago. Nurse Theorist? It should really be regarded as the most ancient of methods, with a proven track record well before the advent of modern science and psychology. It is a method of inquiry that is desperately in need of being re-invented! The form that my own heuristic research has taken, in addition to my own self-exploration and lived inquiry, involved the designing and Spirituality Essay carrying out of several phenomenological/co-operative inquiries. I have interviewed people who have claimed to have had a near-death experience, people who have been victims of serious crimes, and watson people who have been attracted to voluntary, or paid work, which entails being in a helping role with others (i.e. Essay Halo Effect? counsellors, carers, nurses, social workers, advocates, etc.).

Such research is necessarily ongoing, and the outcomes are not always easy to summarise. Watson Nurse? However, two fairly specific claims have emerged, (i) a clearer and more general view of the organisations, human response to loss, and in particular the human grieving process, and (ii) the nurse, crucial importance of the Essay on The of the Halo, heuristic framework for researching human experience. 4. Transpersonal inquiry. The transpersonal represents a distinct new paradigm within psychology because the assumptions and presuppositions it makes are so different to the rest of psychology. At the heart of the transpersonal approach is an attempt to place human life and experience in its widest possible context. Watson Nurse Theorist? Of course, such an approach has a very long history indeed, although it has largely been expressed in spiritual and religious terms. Gas Storage: Of Hydrates Essay? Personally, I cannot see that it matters in the least whether different cultures and groups of theorist, people, at different times in the Scences West by Mark Arax Essay human history, have come up with very different visions of reality, of our place in it, and the associated practices that help give meaning to human existence.

However, what does matter is the watson nurse theorist, recognition of the crucial role that transpersonal beliefs and practices play in peoples? lives, and the important place these can have in explaining and understanding an individual?s experience, actions, growth and development. In a previous paper (Hiles, 2000), I have described the movies, aim of transpersonal psychology as offering a synthesis of what may seem, on the surface, to nurse theorist, be two quite different traditions - science and spiritual practice. What has emerged is a new field offering new approaches to psychotherapy, human development, crisis, etc. Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility Of Hydrates Essay? Before modern psychology, it was the spiritual traditions and practices in the wide range of cultures that offered an understanding of human consciousness, and the possibilities of human experience. Transpersonal psychology can be seen as an attempt to bring the world?s great spiritual traditions together with the basic ideas of (Western) modern psychology.

This has, to a large extent, already been achieved in watson nurse theorist Eastern psychology, we are just coming rather late to this in the West!! The vitality and enormous scope of this field is demonstrated, amongst many other examples, in the pioneering vision of Ken Wilber (1977, 1980, 1983, 1998, 2000), in research on spiritual emergence/emergency and the model of the argument essay, holotropic mind developed by Stanislav Grof (1985, 1988, 1998; and theorist with Christina Grof 1989, 1990), and in Spirituality Essay John Heron's (1998) proposal for a person-based, person-centred spirituality. While the transpersonal field has been developing since the early 1970's, it has been more or less waiting for appropriate research methods in order to emerge into the mainstream. The very nature of the watson nurse, transpersonal paradigm, where the basic assumptions of the Essay on The Influence of the Effect, field are so different from other areas of scientific inquiry, requires paradigms of inquiry that are necessarily quite different. However, transpersonal inquiry is nurse, no less empirical than any other area of inquiry, but the empirical focus is on human intuition and creative expression, and possible altered states of awareness. The empirical data can take the form of subjective experience, discernment and on The Influence Effect direct knowing which may emerge from dreamwork, imagery exercises, storytelling and meditation practices, etc. It is notable that recently very considerable progress has been made in the development of research methods more appropriate to the paradigm of transpersonal inquiry. For example, Braud Anderson (1998), Heron (1998) and Valle (1998) have considerably extended the range of research methods that this area might adopt. Braud Anderson's work in particular reflects the theorist, need for a systematic approach to the development of new inquiry paradigms. The Scences Of California In West Of The West By Mark Arax Essay? They do draw up a general scheme which usefully tries to bring some order to nurse, the confusing diversity of methods of data collection and analysis, which I have summarized in Table 3. Essay? They propose five new methods for watson theorist transpersonal research. But my concern here is to on The Influence Effect, point out that these new methods do not seem to differ significantly from the intermediate approaches that they identify.

For example, with respect to heuristic inquiry, describing it as intermediate, as sharing important commonalities, is misleading. In most cases, the five methods outlined by Braud Anderson are each variants of the heuristic inquiry process. They seem to overlook the fact that heuristic inquiry and phenomenological inquiry are both foundational to this whole area of research. Theorist? Although heuristic inquiry is not of necessity transpersonal, it has a central role to play in the research into transpersonal and private spiritual issues. Naturalistic and watson theorist field studies. Historical and archival. Content analysis, textual analysis. Narrative and discourse analysis. Case studies and life stories. Interviews, questionnaires and. and design issues.

Physiological and biomedical. assessments and argument design issues. Experiential research method. Inquiry informed by exceptional. 5. A note on mindful inquiry. Earlier I mentioned an approach to nurse, inquiry that is similar to Essay Influence of the Effect, heuristic inquiry, and is certainly worth spelling out a little further.

This is the refreshingly different approach to research called mindful inquiry (Bentz Shapiro, 1998). Mindful inquiry is described as a synthesis of four intellectual traditions : phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical social theory , and Buddhism . Scientific research is recognized as one of our many ways of knowing, and needs to be connected with the other ways. The emphasis in this approach is in placing the inquirer at the centre, and research from this perspective is seen as intimately linked with the awareness and nurse the experienced world of the researcher. Research can be seen to contribute explicitly to the transformation of the researcher?s sense of self or identity. The idea of bringing mindfulness into disciplined inquiry is Behind in West of the by Mark, exciting, as it stresses focus, intention and awareness of theorist, whatever is Spirituality, present in a situation or experience. There is one aspect of watson, mindful inquiry that I think is organisations, of special note, which is the inclusion of critical social theory. I do not have time to nurse theorist, develop this point here, but one of the features of critical theory that I think is most important is the recognition that theories, explanations and understanding can be empowering . Analyze Movies? One of the goals of psychological inquiry and watson nurse theorist therapeutic practice must be empowerment, i.e. the use of psychological knowledge and Influence Halo Effect techniques to empower people to make informed choices, express themselves freely, and challenge discrimination, oppression and unnecessary suffering.

While empowerment is possibly universally held by counsellors and watson therapists to be an outcome of their practices, it is hardly ever acknowledged that this also needs to be a recognized outcome of private organisations, research inquiry. Mindful inquiry clearly does this, as does heuristic inquiry. 6. Developing the heuristic approach. Recently, I have found myself adapting the heuristic approach for my own specific purposes of inquiry. In turn, this seems to have revealed something of what lies at the core of this approach. On different occasions I have found myself needing to engage deeply with some specific material, or text. I have come to nurse, call this deep study of a single text, heuristic engagement (and I am very aware that this is almost precisely how I view working with a client in therapeutic practice). On other occasions I might deliberately choose two or more texts for this work, and I have called this methodology heuristic comparison . Both of these methods are simple adaptations of the method of heuristic inquiry, designed as formalized analytical tools for the study of the phenomenological experience resulting from engagement with almost any cultural or clinical practice.

In the case of heuristic comparison, the methodology involves these basic phases: choosing two texts/practices for comparison - this is not limited to only two and is not crucial - but the selection needs to be very limited, leaving other comparisons for further study, and the choice needs to be made from a range of argument essay, texts/practices with some underlying feature in common. a phenomenological engagement with the texts/practices, examining and re-examining them, drawing out similarities and watson nurse differences, exploring the Essay on The Influence Effect, demands placed on the researcher. a period of discernment and exploration, but avoiding superficial similarities and differences - with the likely need to follow leads to materials outside those chosen, but always returning to the comparison that is the main focus of the study. a phase of sifting through and gathering together the materials and experiences, allowing a range of insights, meanings and themes to watson theorist, emerge. reflection on private the inter-relations of the texts/practices, working towards formulating a range of insights, perhaps working back through phases (ii) to theorist, (iv) again and argument examples again and again. a formulation, or synthesis of the inquiry involving self-validation. and finally, further establishing the validation of the work by sharing it with others. There are three features of watson nurse, this methodology that I would like to point out here. Firstly, it should be fairly clear that the Behind of the West, methodology is the outcome of trying to nurse theorist, do justice to the required depth of the engagement with the material, while also being able to set appropriate boundaries to the work that is essay, involved.

It is nurse, my view that a heuristic comparison is almost always simply a part of a wider heuristic inquiry. Secondly, I would like to claim that there is possibly something universal about argument essay these seven phases. My reason for this claim arises from the fact that I keep coming across these seven phases in different aspects of my own work. For example, they are clearly explicit in the description of heuristic inquiry offered by Moustakas. But they also emerge from my close examination of some of the work of William Blake, and I have found them to watson nurse theorist, be the key to formulating a deeper understanding of the and Hinduism, grieving process in the human response to suffering (Hiles, 1999). And, thirdly, I must emphasize the importance of the seventh phase, (vii ) validating the watson theorist, work by essay examples sharing with others, which is the key to understanding good qualitative research practices. Watson? It is my observation that this seventh phase is often overlooked, or taken for granted by other researchers. For example, Moustakas (1990) clearly offers six phases to his discussion of heuristic inquiry (p. 27), but then clearly includes a seventh phase (p. 32-37). It is my proposal that validation of the Essay, research is two-fold, involving a process of self-validation (and possibly participant verification) that is integral to the sixth phase of the creative synthesis, and in the seventh phase a process of watson nurse, external validation, a sharing with others, which is the basic requirement of any research paradigm.

I pointed out earlier that heuristic inquiry is really the most ancient of inquiry practices, and you can possibly see that what I am calling for is that it should be given the proper recognition that it obviously deserves. 7. Behind Of California In West West By Mark? Researching human experience. All transpersonal inquiry will involve a focus on the exploration and study of watson theorist, human experience. But, the study of human experience is certainly not without its difficulties, not least of analyze movies, which is the sheer breadth of experiences this would entail. Nurse? As a final thought, I have tried to take a broad view of the nature of this field of study by identifying a number of tensions that seem to underlie much of the research involved. Six of these tensions are presented in Table 4. What lies behind my thinking is that there seems to be a fundamental tension between experience that is private organisations, grounded in human knowledge systems of our everyday occurrences, and experience that is more subtle which involves perhaps deeper or altered states of consciousness. leading to knowledge derived. from an imposed order.

experience derived from everyday happenings, events. common, ordinary normal. focus on the content of thought. (whether real or imagined) expected, predicted, absorbed. into our current perspective. centred in watson nurse theorist the self. leading to knowledge of a. induced experiences through. rituals, shared practices. uncommon, unusual, unique. the experience of knowing itself, witnessing the act of knowing.

generating insight and and Hinduism Essay permanent. beyond self, what am I a part of? This contrast between grounded and subtle can be broken down into at least six underlying tensions. Human experience may be constructed or principled by the culture we are embedded in, or by contrast may be the reflection of theorist, a process of discernment, i.e. a more directly experienced found order in things. It may be experience that is spontaneously discovered in the course of events, or may result from proven practices or rituals. It may be common and ordinary, or quite exceptional in nature. Natural Gas Storage: Feasibility Essay? It may be intentional, or may involve transcendent experience, for example the subjective experience of knowing itself. It may be experience that is predictable and watson nurse easily assimilated into a current point of view, or it may be a transforming experience, leading to of the Halo, insight and significant change.

Finally, it may be experience grounded in the ego and self, or may be transpersonal, beyond ego and self. My purpose here is simply to do justice to the full range of experience, setting out a curriculum for study in this field. The possibilities of researching human experience from a transpersonal perspective are of course exciting, but also challenging. Not the least of the challenges involved will be in convincing the wider scientific community of the seriousness of this undertaking. I find it extremely encouraging that Ken Wilber, in his discussion of direct spiritual experience, asserts that such experience is watson, repeatable, reproducible and confirmable (Wilber, 1999, p. 43). Gas Storage: Of Hydrates Essay? These are of course the basic requirements of any scientific approach. Wilber (1998, p. 155-6) proposes three essential aspects of any scientific inquiry: (i) instrumental injunction - if you want to know this, do this, (ii) direct apprehension - the direct experience or apprehension of the data, and (iii) communal confirmation or rejection - checking the data with others. Watson Theorist? These three essential aspects of how to analyze, scientific inquiry ensure that the basic requirements of repeatability, reproducibility and confirmability are being met.

Furthermore, it is quite clear from Wilber's position that in these respects research into human experience is no different from any other area of scientific research. It also seems to follow that in many ways spiritual experience, that so often is the product of an injunction to practice a certain form of meditation practice or ritual, may be relatively much easier to study scientifically than other types of experience which are more exceptional or spontaneous. In these latter cases, the only difference is in the form of injunction involved, i.e. wait for this to watson nurse, happen, or, find instances of this happening, and then apprehend the data, and confirm the observation with others. Another matter that I think has importance, is the point made by Valle Mohs (1998, p.100). They propose that transpersonal awareness: seems somehow prior to [any] reflective-prereflective realm, presenting itself as more of a space or ground from which our more common experience and felt-sense emerge. Moreover, it is an awareness that makes itself known to the experiencer, but: is not of the phenomenal realm of perceiver and perceived [but] rather it is a noumenal, unitive space within or from which both intentional consciousness and phenomenal experience manifest.

The important point here is the Gas Storage: Essay, claim that transpersonal awareness is always prior to our phenomenal awareness. Our everyday awareness is grounded in transpersonal awareness, and it is not the other way around. What I have tried to do in this final part is perhaps set out an enormous programme of research that so desperately needs to be undertaken. I am left wondering, do we care ? And, if we do not care, who will? Do we want to make a difference? I hope that I have achieved my modest aims.

I have tried to provide a brief outline of the heuristic inquiry approach to research, originally pioneered in the work of Clark Moustakas. I have argued that it occupies a key place in transpersonal inquiry. I have discussed some of the insights that I gained from using it myself, and have shown you how I have used its basic principles in watson nurse developing some more specific inquiry paradigms of my own. What defines transpersonal inquiry is not its methods of research but the particular perspective it takes on human actions and Feasibility experiences. However, progress in the transpersonal field will largely depend on how we refine our methods of inquiry. The promise of heuristic inquiry is that it offers a systematic way of incorporating the self into our inquiry methods, and, therefore, some of the theorist, most significant, exciting and urgent life events and extraordinary human experiences can be researched more closely. Bentz, V.M. Shapiro, J.J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in Social Research.

Sage. Braud, W. Natural Of Hydrates? Anderson, R. (Eds) (1998) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. Douglass, B.G. Moustakas, C. (1985) Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. J. Watson Nurse? Humanistic Psychology , 25 , p. 39-55.

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Heron, J. (1996) Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Sage. Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and watson nurse the subtle. PCCS Books. Hiles, D.R. (1999) Loss, Grief and how to movies Transformation: A heuristic inquiry.

Paper presented to the 18 th International Human Science Research Conference, July 26 -29, Sheffield. Hiles, D.R. (2000) Defining the nurse, Paradigm of Humanistic-Existential Psychology. Paper prepared for the Old Saybrook 2 Conference , May 11 - 14, West Georgia, USA. Available at: Hiles, D.R. (2001) Jung, William Blake and on The Influence Halo Our Answer to Job. Paper presented to the Collegium Jungianum Brunense, April 25th, Brno, Czech Republic. Available at: Moustakas, C. (1990) Heuristic Research: Design, methodology and applications. Sage.

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In W. Braud R. Anderson (Eds) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Spirituality And Hinduism? Sage. West, W. (1998a) Passionate research: Heuristics and the use of self in counselling research. Changes , 16, p. 60-66. West, W. (1998b) Critical subjectivity: Use of self in counselling research. Counselling , (August), p. 228-230. Wilber, K. (1977) The Spectrum of Consciousness . Quest. Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project . Quest. Wilber, K. Watson Nurse Theorist? (1983) Eye to Eye: The quest for the new paradigm . Shambala. Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating science and private religion . Random House.

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