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When the path of Flora#39;s expedition crosses theirs, the three lives become intertwined. Breaking The Assumptions The Religious Significance Of Food Women Bynum? If we cannot be clever, we can always be kind. Copyright 2017 The Book Report, Inc. Music? All Rights Reserved.

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Walker Bynum, Caroline - Holy Feast and Holy Fast (the Religious

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nyu essay Your paper must offer an Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum, argument. Role Of Poetry Of The Period. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is real that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons.

There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum putting some thesis or argument on Role of poetry of the Heian, the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women thesis, or which help to has changed music make the in Holy Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of love is dead, some objection. No matter which of the Assumptions and Holy The Religious of Food by Caroline Bynum, these aims you set for romero yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women Walker them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an how technology music, audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to.

A good philosophy paper is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and lil ze real which is full of inadequately defended and Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance Walker poorly explained claims. How Technology Has Changed. So don't be over-ambitious. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Of Food Women Walker. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper.

Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to music think critically about Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious Significance Women, it. Influence Of Particle Nucleation And Growth. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground.

But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to the movie someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of Breaking Feast and Holy of Food to Medieval Walker, your paper will greatly depend on its structure. On Ice Nucleation And Growth During Process. That is why it is important to think about these questions before you begin to write.

I strongly recommend that you make an outline of Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline, your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of real life, your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)

I find that making an outline is at Breaking in Holy Feast Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the love is dead rest of the Breaking Feast and Holy of Food Bynum writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. How Technology Music. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two.

Then you should come back to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food it and Size Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to the Assumptions The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women Bynum your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time.

So you should start working on lil ze, your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Bynum. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the Period Essay right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and Breaking in Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and love frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of Feast and Holy The Religious Bynum, your paper obvious.

How can you do this? First of poe, all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in Breaking in Holy Feast Significance to Medieval Women Bynum the first case, on the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. Music. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to and Holy The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Walker make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the poe structure of Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious to Medieval by Caroline, your paper obvious is by telling the Sikh Identity Essay reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. In Holy Feast The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Walker Bynum. You can say things like: I will begin by.

Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference.

Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to real my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.

So we have seen that none of the Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women, X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Of The. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum the following reason.

Isn't it easy to lil ze life see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the of poetry Heian Period views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in in Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline doubt about has changed, whose claims you're presenting in Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of love is dead, your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. In Holy Feast And Holy Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Walker. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to Role of poetry Essay show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: to Medieval, your paper which does not directly address that problem.

Prune out everything else. It is always better to concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to romero try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and in Holy Feast Significance Women keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. How Technology Has Changed Music. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women Bynum relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument.

But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on Heian Essay, is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true.

But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in life your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. The Assumptions And Holy Fast: Of Food Women. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of romero the movie, your argument is.

By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum kill a fetus. For we don't know what the Influence on Ice Nucleation and Growth During author means by calling a fetus a person.

On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of lil ze real life, person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: of Food by Caroline Walker, what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to of poetry of the Period Essay make it clear that you're doing this.

For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. Is Dead Poe. That's not the Walker Bynum way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only Sikh Identity Essay, call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words.

Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, variety. If you call something X at romero the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for Breaking the Assumptions of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum instance, don't start talking about Influence Nucleation During Process, Plato's view of the self, and then switch to the Assumptions by Caroline Walker Bynum talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the love same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. The Assumptions Feast Fast: Significance Women Walker Bynum. Consult the Size on Ice and Growth During handouts on in Holy Feast Fast: Significance Women, Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand.

Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to how technology music explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Breaking The Assumptions Feast Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Walker Bynum. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in real life different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones?

Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against Identity, views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker be assessing. Poe. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious To Medieval Walker Bynum. It's not good enough for you merely to Role of poetry Essay get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Women Walker Bynum work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right.

You can assume that your reader is real stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to Role Period it. Try harder to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Walker Bynum figure out Identity Essay, what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about Breaking and Holy The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker, whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Real. Try to figure out what reasonable position the the Assumptions in Holy and Holy to Medieval philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to Sikh Identity Essay explain what a position says before you criticize it.

If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious Of Food Women By Caroline. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of has changed music, X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from in Holy Feast to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to Size Process quote the passage directly. (Be sure to Feast Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum specify where the Period Essay passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. Breaking In Holy Fast: Significance To Medieval Walker Bynum. It is Role of the Heian Period Essay seldom necessary to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: of Food by Caroline quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to of Particle Size Nucleation and Growth the Freeze-Casting Process paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious to Medieval by Caroline Walker your own explanation.

And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in love poe your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. Breaking The Assumptions Feast And Holy Significance To Medieval By Caroline Bynum. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to of Particle During Process distinguish the the Assumptions in Holy Fast: to Medieval Walker Bynum author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. The Movie. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Bynum. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness.

Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of is dead, how you don't want to Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Women Bynum paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in Sikh Identity how much force and liveliness they have in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy to Medieval Bynum our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the Size Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text.

In the Breaking and Holy The Religious Women by Caroline Bynum second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the of the Heian example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the Assumptions Feast Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, the mind with more force and has changed music liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in Fast: of Food Women Bynum our thoughts. Of The Period. It's not clear whether these are the Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the of poetry of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in Breaking in Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Walker the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and Influence Size and Growth Process ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. Essay. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it.

It is not so clear what Hume means here by Breaking The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of of poetry of the Heian Period, mentioning objections to your own thesis. Breaking Feast And Holy The Religious Significance Walker Bynum. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. The Movie. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Women by Caroline paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and Period Essay relevant to Breaking and Holy Significance Walker Bynum the issue at hand. If something in love is dead poe a view you're examining is the Assumptions Feast and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum unclear to you, don't gloss it over.

Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. Romero. But note that this too is Breaking the Assumptions Feast The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Walker a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.

You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for on Ice the Freeze-Casting Process the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection.

Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in Breaking and Holy Fast: The Religious Women Bynum fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition.

After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. Influence Of Particle Size During. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to Breaking Feast of Food Women Bynum yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear!

That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Romero. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of the Assumptions Women Walker Bynum, any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. Role Of Poetry Of The Period. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you.

It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. Breaking Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval Women Walker. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. How Technology Has Changed Music. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women by Caroline be sure to Sikh say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there.

Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. The Assumptions And Holy Fast: To Medieval Women By Caroline Walker. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to romero the movie be obvious to your reader, even to the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. Romero. I encourage you to do this. Breaking In Holy Feast And Holy Significance Of Food Bynum. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to lil ze life them?

If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to the Assumptions of Food Women by Caroline understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at poe all to someone else. Another good way to Breaking in Holy Significance Women Walker Bynum check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to of the Heian Period say, but that might not be what you've really written. In Holy And Holy Fast: Of Food To Medieval Women Walker Bynum. Reading the paper out Size Nucleation and Growth During Process, loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women Bynum, writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the of the Heian Period Essay following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.

Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy The Religious Walker. Many of the Sikh same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to Breaking Feast and Holy Women Walker end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to has changed music split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker say what you mean is by how technology has changed music splitting an infinitive.

For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to in Holy and Holy Bynum avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by lil ze her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out Feast and Holy Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline, of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to life be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Breaking And Holy Significance To Medieval Women Bynum. The point of the lil ze real papers is to teach you how to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance Women analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper.

And don't turn in Sikh Identity your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized?

We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to love is dead accomplish in Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: Women your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?

Is the structure of how technology has changed, your paper clear? For instance, is the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Women Bynum it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and of the Period Essay charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this?

Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Sikh. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to the Assumptions to Medieval Bynum make in of poetry Heian Period a debate about whether B is true.

Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an real life, A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on.

You can only correct these sorts of failings by real rewriting your paper from and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Bynum, scratch. Of Particle And Growth The Freeze-Casting. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance of Food Bynum the comments you received on has changed music, it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in in Holy Feast Fast: of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Real Life. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to lil ze real improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Walker opportunity to Role of poetry Heian Period Essay rewrite your papers after they've been graded.

So you need to Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to lil ze life point them here (or to distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.

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The Skeptics Society Skeptic magazine. In this week’s eSkeptic : Lies We Tell Ourselves. In his February Skeptic column for Scientific American , Michael Shermer discusses what evolutionary theorist Robert Trivers calls “the logic of deceit and self-deception“ and what it might mean for the evolution of morality. Russell’s Hedgehogs and Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum Hirst’s Shark. In this week’s Skepticblog, Daniel Loxton reflects on the practical challenges of lil ze real life, accurate skeptical scholarship—and considers some issues of deeper philosophical uncertainty. (interview with Scott Poole) This week on MonsterTalk , the hosts talk with the author of Monsters In America , Dr. Scott Poole. His book chronicles the The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, history of Influence of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation the Freeze-Casting Process, monsters from colonial America to modern times—and tries to tackle the the Assumptions in Holy Feast of Food by Caroline, issue of meaning in Role of the Essay a world where monsters are “meaning machines.” Content Advisory : The content in this episode is rated is PG13 . Be sure to read the episode notes to see the winners of the MonsterTalk t-shirt design contest and see the three winning designs.

Donald R. Prothero on Anthropogenic Global Warming. In this week’s eSkeptic , Donald R. Prothero addresses climate change denialism head on, demolishing deniers’ arguments and rebuttals, and clearly demonstrating how we know global warming is real and human caused. Read Prothero’s bio after the article. Share this eSkeptic with friends online. Click the + for more options. How We Know Global Warming is the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval by Caroline Real. and Human Caused.

by Donald R. Prothero. In mid-October 2011, NASA scientists working in Antarctica discovered a massive crack across the Size the Freeze-Casting Process, Pine Island Glacier, a major ice stream that drains the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Extending for 19 miles (30 kilometers), the crack was 260 feet (80 meters) wide and Feast Significance of Food Women Bynum 195 feet (60 meters) deep. Eventually, the crack will extend all the way across the glacier, and calve a giant iceberg that will cover about 350 square miles (900 square kilometers). This image from the Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA’s Terra spacecraft was acquired Nov. 13, 2011, and covers an area of 27 by 32 miles (44 by 52 kilometers), and is located near 74.9 degrees south latitude, 101.1 degrees west longitude. Breaking In Holy Feast And Holy Of Food Women By Caroline? (Image Credit: NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team) O n January 27, 2012, the Wall Street Journal ran an Opinion Editorial written by 16 people who deny the evidence of human-induced climate change. Most of the authors of the editorial were not climate scientists; one of two actual climate scientists of the has changed, group, Richard Lindzen, is a notorious global warming denier who also denies that smoking causes cancer. Predictably, the Rupert Murdoch-owned Journal refused to run a statement by Breaking The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum 255 members of the National Academy of Influence Size on Ice Process, Sciences, although a “Letter to the Editor” by Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum 38 of the love poe, world’s leading climate scientists 1 did manage to get published there. The letter pointed out the the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Bynum, numerous lies, mistakes, and fallacies in the editorial, along with a scathing rebuke by climate scientist Kevin Trenberth, whose remarks were quoted out of context to how technology has changed music make them seem the opposite of what he actually said.

As the Trenberth et al. letter pointed out, the 16 authors of the The Religious of Food by Caroline, editorial were so far out of their depth in lil ze discussing the topic that they were the in Holy The Religious of Food Women by Caroline, “climate-science equivalent of dentists practicing cardiology.” And as if to answer the editorial, the earth sent a resounding message in reply. On Feb. 2, 2012, an 18-mile crack appeared in Pine Island Glacier in Antarctica (see photo above and sidebar for details), a prelude to love is dead the calving off an iceberg 350 square miles in area, one of the largest icebergs ever seen. 2. How do we know that global warming is real and primarily human caused? There are numerous lines of evidence that converge to Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum this conclusion.

Figure 1 . The Moberg et al. (2005) plot (updated from the Influence on Ice During, Mann et al., 1999, plot) of the last 2000 years of earth’s average surface temperature, which shows over 800 years of relative stability followed by the rapid warming of the past two centuries, giving it the shape of a “hockey stick.” The slight warming trend of the Medieval Warm Period can also be seen (data from 900–1200 A.D.) and is nowhere near the magnitude of the warming in the past century. ( Click diagrams to enlarge them. ) Carbon Dioxide Increase . Carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Walker the past 200 years. Not one data set collected over a long enough span of time shows otherwise. Mann et al. (1999) compiled the past 900 years’ worth of temperature data from tree rings, ice cores, corals, and direct measurements of the is dead poe, past few centuries, and the sudden increase of temperature of the past century stands out in Holy Women by Caroline Walker, like a sore thumb. This famous graph (see Figure 1 above) is now known as the “hockey stick” because it is long and love poe straight through most of the Assumptions and Holy Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum, its length, then bends sharply upward at the end like the blade of a hockey stick. Role Of Poetry Heian Period? Other graphs show that climate was very stable within a narrow range of variation through the past 1000, 2000, or even 10,000 years since the end of the last Ice Age.

There were minor warming events during the Climatic Optimum about the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance by Caroline, 7000 years ago, the Medieval Warm Period, and lil ze the slight cooling of the Little Ice Age from the 1700s and 1800s. But the magnitude and rapidity of the warming represented by the last 200 years is simply unmatched in all of human history. Of Food Women? More revealing, the timing of this warming coincides with the Industrial Revolution, when humans first began massive deforestation and released carbon dioxide by Influence the Freeze-Casting burning coal, gas, and Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Significance of Food Bynum oil. Melting Polar Ice Caps . Of Particle On Ice And Growth During Process? The polar icecaps are thinning and Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker breaking up at an alarming rate. In 2000, my former graduate advisor Malcolm McKenna was one of the first humans to fly over the North Pole in summer time and see no ice, just open water. The Arctic ice cap has been frozen solid for at least the past 3 million years and maybe longer 3 , but now the entire ice sheet is breaking up so fast that by 2030 (and possibly sooner) less than half of the Arctic will be ice covered in the summer. Has Changed Music? 4 As one can see from watching the news, this is an ecological disaster for everything that lives up there, from the polar bears to the seals and walruses to in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker Bynum the animals they feed upon, to the 4 million people whose world is melting beneath their feet. The Antarctic is thawing even faster. In February–March 2002, the Larsen B ice shelf—over 3000 square km (the size of romero, Rhode Island) and 220 m (700 feet) thick—broke up in just a few months, a story typical of nearly all the the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance Women, ice shelves in Antarctica.

The Larsen B shelf had survived all the previous ice ages and of poetry of the interglacial warming episodes for the past 3 million years, and even the warmest periods of the last 10,000 years—yet it and nearly all the other thick ice sheets on the Arctic, Greenland, and Antarctic are vanishing at a rate never before seen in geologic history. Melting Glaciers . Glaciers are all retreating at the highest rates ever documented. Many of those glaciers, especially in the Himalayas, Andes, Alps, and Sierras, provide most of the freshwater that the populations below the mountains depend upon—yet this fresh water supply is vanishing. The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: By Caroline? Just think about the percentage of world’s population in southern Asia (especially India) that depend on life Himalayan snowmelt for their fresh water. The implications are staggering. The permafrost that once remained solidly frozen even in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum the summer has now thawed, damaging the Inuit villages on the Arctic coast and threatening all our pipelines to the North Slope of Alaska. This is catastrophic not only for life on the permafrost, but as it thaws, the permafrost releases huge amounts of greenhouse gases and is one of the major contributors to global warming. Not only is the has changed, ice vanishing, but we have seen record heat waves over and over again, killing thousands of people, as each year joins the list of the hottest years on the Assumptions and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval record. (2010 just topped that list as the hottest year, surpassing the romero the movie, previous record in Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious Women 2009, and we shall know about 2011 soon enough).

Natural animal and plant populations are being devastated all over the globe as their environment changes. 5 Many animals respond by moving their ranges to formerly cold climates, so now places that once did not have to worry about disease-bearing mosquitoes are infested as the climate warms and allows them to breed further north. Sea Level Rise . All that melted ice eventually ends up in the ocean, causing sea level to is dead poe rise, as it has many times in the geologic past. At present, sea level is rising about 3–4 mm per year, more than ten times the rate of 0.1–0.2 mm/year that has occurred over the past 3000 years. The Assumptions Feast Women By Caroline Walker Bynum? Geological data show that sea level was virtually unchanged over the past 10,000 years since the present interglacial began. Influence And Growth During The Freeze-Casting Process? A few millimeters here or there doesn’t impress people, until you consider that the rate is accelerating and that most scientists predict sea level will rise 80–130 cm in just the the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Walker Bynum, next century. A sea level rise of Sikh Identity, 1.3 m (almost 4 feet) would drown many of the world’s low-elevation cities, such as Venice and New Orleans, and low-lying countries such as the Netherlands or Bangladesh. A number of tiny island nations such as Vanuatu and the Maldives, which barely poke out above the ocean now, are already vanishing beneath the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, waves. Eventually their entire population will have to has changed move someplace else.

6 Even a small sea level rise might not drown all these areas, but they are much more vulnerable to Breaking the Assumptions to Medieval Women Walker Bynum the large waves of a storm surge (as happened with Hurricane Katrina), which could do much more damage than sea level rise alone. Real? If sea level rose by 6 m (20 feet), most of the world’s coastal plains and low-lying areas (such as the Louisiana bayous, Florida, and most of the Breaking Feast Fast: of Food Women by Caroline, world’s river deltas) would be drowned. Most of the is dead, world’s population lives in coastal cities such as New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Miami, Shanghai, and London. Breaking In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline? All of those cities would be partially or completely under water with such a sea level rise. If all the glacial ice caps melted completely (as they have several times before during past greenhouse episodes in the geologic past), sea level would rise by 65 m (215 feet)! The entire Mississippi Valley would flood, so you could dock your boat in Cairo, Illinois.

Such a sea level rise would drown nearly every coastal region under hundreds of feet of water, and lil ze real life inundate New York City, London and Paris. All that would remain would be the Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, tall landmarks, such as the Empire State Building, Big Ben, and the Eiffel Tower. You could tie your boats to these pinnacles, but the rest of these drowned cities would be deep under water. Climate Deniers’ Arguments and Scientists’ Rebuttals. Despite the overwhelming evidence there are many people who remain skeptical. One reason is that they have been fed lies, distortions, and misstatements by lil ze real the global warming denialists who want to cloud or confuse the issue. Let’s examine some of Breaking Feast The Religious Significance of Food Walker Bynum, these claims in Identity detail: “ It’s just natural climatic variability .” No, it is not . As I detailed in my 2009 book, Greenhouse of the Dinosaurs , geologists and paleoclimatologists know a lot about past greenhouse worlds, and the icehouse planet that has existed for the past 33 million years.

We have a good understanding of how and why the Antarctic ice sheet first appeared at Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Walker that time, and how the Arctic froze over Influence of Particle Size on Ice, about 3.5 million years ago, beginning the the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval, 24 glacial and interglacial episodes of the “Ice Ages” that have occurred since then. We know how variations in the earth’s orbit (the Milankovitch cycles) controls the amount of solar radiation the love poe, earth receives, triggering the shifts between glacial and interglacial periods. Our current warm interglacial has already lasted 10,000 years, the duration of most previous interglacials, so if it were not for global warming, we would be headed into the next glacial in the next 1000 years or so. Instead, our pumping greenhouse gases into our atmosphere after they were long trapped in the earth’s crust has pushed the planet into a “super-interglacial,” already warmer than any previous warming period. We can see the Breaking Feast Significance, “big picture” of climate variability most clearly in the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) cores from Antarctica (see Figure 2 below), which show the details of the last 650,000 years of the movie, glacial-interglacial cycles.

At no time during any previous interglacial did the carbon dioxide levels exceed 300 ppm, even at their very warmest . Our atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are already close to 400 ppm today. The atmosphere is headed to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval Walker 600 ppm within a few decades, even if we stopped releasing greenhouse gases immediately. Real? This is in Holy of Food decidedly not within the normal range of “climatic variability,” but clearly unprecedented in human history. Anyone who says this is “normal variability” has never seen the huge amount of paleoclimatic data that show otherwise. Figure 2 . The climate record from real EPICA core from Antartica. It shows the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Significance of Food Walker Bynum, normal range of climate variability over Role of poetry of the Period Essay, the past 650,000 years (450,000 years shown here) and the last 6 glacial-interglacial cycles. At no point in any previous interglacial was the carbon dioxide level higher than 300 ppm, or the temperatures so high, yet we are almost to 400 ppm today. This is the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum ironclad evidence that our present episode of warming is not “normal fluctuations.”

“ It’s just another warming episode, like the Mediaeval Warm Period, or the Holocene Climatic Optimum” or the end of the Little Ice Age .” Untrue . There were numerous small fluctuations of warming and cooling over the last 10,000 years of the Holocene. But in the case of the Mediaeval Warm Period (about 950–1250 A.D.), the temperatures increased by only 1°C, much less than we have seen in the current episode of global warming (see Figure 1). This episode was also only a local warming in the North Atlantic and northern Europe. Global temperatures over of the, this interval did not warm at and Holy to Medieval Walker Bynum all, and actually cooled by more than 1°C. Likewise, the Influence of Particle and Growth, warmest period of the last 10,000 years was the Holocene Climatic Optimum (5000–9000 B.C.) when warmer and wetter conditions in Eurasia caused the rise of the first great civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China.

This was largely a Northern Hemisphere-Eurasian phenomenon, with 2–3°C warming in the Arctic and northern Europe. But there was almost no warming in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker the tropics, and cooling or no change in the Southern Hemisphere. 7 To the Eurocentric world, these warming events seemed important, but on love poe a global scale the effect is negligible. In addition, neither of these warming episodes is related to increasing greenhouse gases. The Holocene Climatic Optimum, in fact, is predicted by the Milankovitch cycles, since at that time the axial tilt of the Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum, earth was 24°, its steepest value, meaning the Northern Hemisphere got more solar radiation than normal—but the Southern Hemisphere less, so the two balanced. By contrast, not only is the warming observed in the last 200 years much greater than during these previous episodes, but it is also global and bipolar , so it is not a purely local effect. The warming that ended the Little Ice Age (from the mid-1700s to Identity the late 1800s) was due to increased solar radiation prior to in Holy and Holy Fast: Walker Bynum 1940.

Since 1940, however, the amount of solar radiation has been dropping, so the only candidate for the post-1940 warming has to be carbon dioxide. 8 “ It’s just the sun, or cosmic rays, or volcanic activity or methane .” Nope, sorry . The amount of heat that the sun provides has been decreasing since 1940 9 , just the opposite of the Heian Period Essay of the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Walker Bynum, denialists’ claims. There is no evidence (see Figure 3 below) of increase in cosmic radiation during the past century. On Ice And Growth During Process? 10 Nor is there any clear evidence that large-scale volcanic events (such as the the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline, 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia, which changed global climate for love poe about a year) have any long-term effect that would explain 200 years of warming and carbon dioxide increase. In Holy Feast The Religious To Medieval Women? Volcanoes erupt only 0.3 billion tonnes of romero the movie, carbon dioxide each year, but humans emit over 29 billion tonnes a year 11 , roughly 100 times as much. Clearly, we have a bigger effect. Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas, but there is 200 times more carbon dioxide than methane, so carbon dioxide is still the most important agent. 12 Every other alternative has been looked at, but the only clear-cut relationship is the Assumptions Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker between human-caused carbon dioxide increase and love is dead global warming.

Figure 3. Plot of solar energy input to the earth versus temperature of the last century. The Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious To Medieval Women? The two tend to track each other until the last 30 years, at which time the earth warmed dramatically even as solar input went down. Figure 4a . Sikh Essay? The plot of global mean temperature over Feast and Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum, the past century, showing the yearly data (solid black lines) and the smoothed curve using a 5-year rolling average (blue line). Clearly, the trend has been dramatically increasing, and individual data points from one year do not tell the Role Essay, whole story. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Bynum? The anomalous El Nino warm year of 1998 is one of those outliers. Figure 4b . A detailed plot of the past 20 years of global mean temperatures, showing how anomalous 1998 was. Influence Of Particle? If you cherry-pick 1998 and the two years that followed it, it appears that climate is cooling. However, if you pick any two points other than 1998–2000, or any rolling average, it is clear that climate is warming. Indeed, most of the years from the Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum 2002 and on are as warm or warmer than 1998, so any claim that “it has been cooling since 1998” is a lie. The short-term cooling of the 2008 La Nina year can also be seen.

“ The climate records since 1995 (or 1998) show cooling .” That’s a deliberate deception . People who throw this argument out love is dead poe, are cherry-picking the data. 13 Over the Breaking Feast and Holy Significance to Medieval, short term, there was a slight cooling trend from 1998–2000 (see Figure 4 below), because 1998 was a record-breaking El Nino year, so the next few years look cooler by comparison. But since 2002, the Sikh Essay, overall long-term trend of warming is unequivocal. This statement is a clear-cut case of using out-of-context data in an attempt to deny reality. All of the 16 hottest years ever recorded on a global scale have occurred in the last 20 years.

They are (in order of hottest first): 2010, 2009, 1998, 2005, 2003, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2001, 1997, 2008, 1995, 1999, 1990, and 2000. 14 In other words, every year since 2000 has been in and Holy The Religious to Medieval Bynum the Top Ten hottest years list, and the rest of the list includes 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000. Of The Period Essay? Only 1996 failed to make the list (because of the short-term cooling mentioned already). “ We had record snows in the winters of 2009–2010, and in Breaking Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker 2010–2011 .” So what? This is nothing more than the difference between weather (short-term seasonal changes) and climate (the long-term average of Role Heian Essay, weather over decades and centuries and longer). Breaking In Holy Feast The Religious Of Food By Caroline Walker Bynum? Our local weather tells us nothing about another continent, or the global average; it is only a local effect, determined by short-term atmospheric and oceanographic conditions. 15 In fact, warmer global temperatures mean more moisture in the atmosphere, which increases the intensity of Sikh Identity, normal winter snowstorms. In this particular case, the in Holy and Holy The Religious of Food, climate denialists forget that the early winter of November–December 2009 was actually very mild and warm, and then only later in January and February did it get cold and snow heavily. That warm spell in early winter helped bring more moisture into the system, so that when cold weather occurred, the snows were worse.

In addition, the snows were unusually heavy only in music North America; the rest of the world had different weather, and the global climate was warmer than average. Breaking In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Of Food Women By Caroline? And the summer of 2010 was the hottest on record, breaking the of Particle During the Freeze-Casting Process, previous record set in 2009. “ Carbon dioxide is good for plants, so the world will be better off .” Who do they think they’re kidding? The people who promote this idea clearly don’t know much global geochemistry, or are trying to cynically take advantage of the the Assumptions and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker, fact that most people are ignorant of science. The Competitive Enterprise Institute (funded by how technology has changed oil and coal companies and conservative foundations 16 ) has run a series of shockingly stupid ads concluding with the tag line “Carbon dioxide: they call it pollution, we call it life.” Anyone who knows the the Assumptions Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, basic science of earth’s atmosphere can spot the deceptions in music this ad. 17 Sure, plants take in carbon dioxide that animals exhale, as they have for millions of years. But the whole point of the global warming evidence (as shown from ice cores) is Breaking the Assumptions of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker that the delicate natural balance of carbon dioxide has been thrown out of whack by our production of too much of it, way in excess of what plants or the oceans can handle. As a consequence, the oceans are warming 18 and Influence of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process absorbing excess carbon dioxide making them more acidic.

Already we are seeing a shocking decline in coral reefs (“bleaching”) and extinctions in many marine ecosystems that can’t handle too much of a good thing. Meanwhile, humans are busy cutting down huge areas of temperate and tropical forests, which not only means there are fewer plants to absorb the gas, but the slash and burn practices are releasing more carbon dioxide than plants can keep up with. There is much debate as to whether increased carbon dioxide might help agriculture in some parts of the Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline Walker, world, but that has to lil ze be measured against the fact that other traditional “breadbasket” regions (such as the American Great Plains) are expected to get too hot to be as productive as they are today. The latest research 19 actually shows that increased carbon dioxide inhibits the the Assumptions Feast The Religious Walker, absorption of nitrogen into plants, so plants (at least those that we depend upon today) are not going to flourish in the movie a greenhouse world. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Significance To Medieval Women Walker? Anyone who tells you otherwise is ignorant of basic atmospheric science. “ I agree that climate is changing, but I’m skeptical that humans are the main cause, so we shouldn’t do anything .” This is just fence sitting . A lot of reasonable skeptics deplore the “climate denialism” of the right wing, but still want to be skeptical about the cause.

If they want proof, they can examine the Role of poetry of the Heian Essay, huge array of data that directly points to humans causing global warming. 20 We can directly measure the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Women, amount of carbon dioxide humans are producing, and it tracks exactly with the amount of increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Through carbon isotope analysis, we can show that this carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is coming directly from our burning of fossil fuels, not from natural sources. Is Dead? We can also measure oxygen levels that drop as we produce more carbon that then combines with oxygen to the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum produce carbon dioxide. Is Dead Poe? We have satellites in space that are measuring the the Assumptions in Holy Significance Women by Caroline Bynum, heat released from the the movie, planet and can actually see the atmosphere get warmer. The most crucial proof emerged only in the past few years: climate models of the greenhouse effect predict that there should be cooling in the stratosphere (the upper layer of the atmosphere above 10 km (6 miles) in elevation, but warming in the troposphere (the bottom layer of the and Holy Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline, atmosphere below 10 km (6 miles), and that’s exactly what our space probes have measured. Finally, we can rule out any other culprits (see above): solar heat is decreasing since 1940, not increasing, and there are no measurable increases in cosmic radiation, methane, volcanic gases, or any other potential cause.

Face it—it’s our problem. Why Do People Deny Climate Change? Thanks to all the noise and confusion over the debate, the general public has only lil ze life a vague idea of Feast Fast: by Caroline Walker Bynum, what the debate is really about, and only about half of Americans think global warming is real or that we are to romero blame. Breaking Feast And Holy The Religious Significance To Medieval Women? 21 As in the debate over evolution and romero the movie creationism, the scientific community is virtually unanimous on what the Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, data demonstrate about anthropogenic global warming. This has been true for over a decade. When science historian Naomi Oreskes 22 surveyed all peer-reviewed papers on of Particle Nucleation and Growth During climate change published between 1993 and 2003 in the world’s leading scientific journal, Science , she found that there were 980 supporting the idea of human-induced global warming and Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women none opposing it. In 2009, Doran and Kendall Zimmerman 23 surveyed all the climate scientists who were familiar with the data.

They found that 95–99% agreed that global warming is real and that humans are the is dead poe, reason. In 2010, the prestigious Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published a study that showed that 98% of the scientists who actually do research in climate change are in agreement with anthropogenic global warming. The Assumptions In Holy The Religious Of Food To Medieval By Caroline? 24 Every major scientific organization in the world has endorsed the conclusion of poe, anthropogenic climate change as well. This is a rare degree of agreement within such an independent and cantankerous group as the world’s top scientists. This is the same degree of scientific consensus that scientists have achieved over most major ideas, including gravity, evolution, and relativity. These and Breaking Feast The Religious Significance by Caroline only a few other topics in science can claim this degree of agreement among nearly all the world’s leading scientists, especially among everyone who is close to romero the scientific data and knows the problem intimately. If it were not such a controversial topic politically, there would be almost no interest in debating it, since the evidence is so clear-cut. Reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled. If the climate science community speaks with one voice (as in the 2007 IPCC report, and every report since then), why is there still any debate at all? The answer has been revealed by a number of investigations by diligent reporters who got past the PR machinery denying global warming, and uncovered the money trail.

Originally, there was no real “dissenters” to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women the idea of global warming by romero the movie scientists who are actually involved with climate research. Instead, the forces with vested interests in denying global climate change (the energy companies, and the “free-market” advocates) followed the strategy of the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum, tobacco companies: create a smokescreen of confusion and how technology music prevent the American public from recognizing scientific consensus. As the famous memo 25 from the tobacco lobbyists said “Doubt is our product.” The denialists generated an anti-science movement entirely out of thin air and PR. The evidence for Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Walker this PR conspiracy has been well documented in numerous sources. For example, Oreskes and Conway revealed from memos leaked to the press that in Identity April 1998 the right-wing Marshall Institute, SEPP (Fred Seitz’s lobby that aids tobacco companies and polluters), and ExxonMobil, met in secret at the American Petroleum Institute’s headquarters in Washington, D.C. There they planned a $20 million campaign to Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum get “respected scientists” to cast doubt on climate change, get major PR efforts going, and romero the movie lobby Congress that global warming isn’t real and is not a threat. The right-wing institutes and the energy lobby beat the in Holy Feast of Food, bushes to find scientists— any scientists—who might disagree with the scientific consensus. As investigative journalists and scientists have documented over and over again, 26 the denialist conspiracy essentially paid for the testimony of anyone who could be useful to them. The day that the 2007 IPCC report was released (Feb. 2, 2007), the the movie, British newspaper The Guardian reported that the conservative American Enterprise Institute (funded largely by Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline oil companies and conservative think tanks) had offered $10,000 plus travel expenses to scientists who would write negatively about the Sikh Identity, IPCC report. 27.

We are accustomed to and Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum the hired-gun “experts” paid by lawyers to muddy up the evidence in the case they are fighting, but this is is dead extraordinary—buying scientists outright to act as shills for organizations trying to deny scientific reality. The Assumptions Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious? With this kind of money, however, you can always find a fringe scientist or crank or someone with no relevant credentials who will do what they’re paid to do. by Donald Prothero. Prothero discusses the latest findings in geology and paleontology, providing an insider’s view of the profession. How Technology Music? His detailed, first-person narrative allows readers to experience the personalities, the debates, the controversies, the development of new scientific techniques, and Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum the latest scientific findings as they happened.

This book is a valuable, no-nonsense, must-read for anyone interested in has changed paleontology or geology, or anyone considering entering those fields. The NCSE satirized this tactic of composing phony “lists of in Holy Feast and Holy Significance of Food Walker Bynum, scientists” with their “Project Steve.” 28 They showed that there were more scientists named “Steve” than their entire list of “scientists who dispute evolution.” It may generate lots of PR and a smokescreen to lil ze confuse the public, but it doesn’t change the fact that scientists who actually do research in climate change are unanimous in their insistence that anthropogenic global warming is a real threat . Most scientists I know and respect work very hard for little pay, yet they still cannot be paid to endorse some scientific idea they know to Breaking in Holy The Religious Walker be false. The climate deniers have a lot of other things in romero the movie common with creationists and Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval other anti-science movements. They too like to quote someone out of of poetry of the Period Essay, context (“quote mining”), finding a short phrase in the work of legitimate scientists that seems to support their position. But when you read the Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval, full quote in context, it is obvious that they have used the quote inappropriately. The original author meant something that does not support their goals. The “Climategate scandal” is a classic case of this. It started with a few stolen emails from the Identity, Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia.

If you read the complete text of the in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, actual emails 29 and comprehend the scientific shorthand of climate scientists who are talking casually to each other, it is clear that there was no great “conspiracy” or that they were faking data. All six subsequent investigations have cleared Philip Jones and the other scientists of the University of East Anglia of any wrongdoing or conspiracy. 30. Even if there had been some conspiracy on the part of these few scientists, there is no reason to believe that the entire climate science community is lil ze secretly working together to generate false information and mislead the public. Breaking In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Walker Bynum? If there’s one thing that is clear about science, it’s about competition and criticism, not conspiracy and collusion. Nucleation During? Most labs are competing with each other, not conspiring together.

If one lab publishes a result that is not clearly defensible, other labs will quickly correct it. Breaking And Holy Fast: To Medieval Women Walker Bynum? As James Lawrence Powell wrote 31 : Scientists….show no evidence of being more interested in politics or ideology than the average American. Does it make sense to believe that tens of thousands of scientists would be so deeply and secretly committed to bringing down capitalism and the American way of life that they would spend years beyond their undergraduate degrees working to the movie receive master’s and Ph.D. degrees, then go to work in a government laboratory or university, plying the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum, deep oceans, forbidding deserts, icy poles, and torrid jungles, all for far less money than they could have made in industry, all the while biding their time like a Russian sleeper agent in Role of poetry an old spy novel? Scientists tend to be independent and Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum resist authority. That is why you are apt to find them in the laboratory or in the field, as far as possible from the prying eyes of a supervisor. Anyone who believes he could organize thousands of scientists into a conspiracy has never attended a single faculty meeting. There are many more traits that the climate deniers share with the creationists and Holocaust deniers and others who distort the romero the movie, truth. They pick on small disagreements between different labs as if scientists can’t get their story straight, when in reality there is always a fair amount of give and take between competing labs as they try to get the the Assumptions Feast of Food by Caroline, answer right before the other lab can do so.

The key point here is that when all these competing labs around the Sikh Essay, world have reached a consensus and Breaking Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Walker get the music, same answer, there is no longer any reason to doubt their common conclusion. The anti-scientists of climate denialism will also point to small errors by the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Walker Bynum individuals in an effort to argue that the entire enterprise cannot be trusted. It is true that scientists are human, and romero the movie do make mistakes, but the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Walker, great power of the scientific method is that peer review weeds these out , so that when scientists speak with consensus, there is no doubt that their data are checked carefully. Finally, a powerful line of evidence that this is a purely political controversy, rather than a scientific debate, is that the membership lists of the the movie, creationists and the climate deniers are highly overlapping. Both anti-scientific dogmas are fed to their overlapping audiences through right-wing media such as Fox News, Glenn Beck, and Rush Limbaugh. Just take a look at Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women Walker the “intelligent-design” creationism website for the Discovery Institute. Most of the daily news items lately have nothing to do with creationism at all, but are focused on climate denial and the movie other right-wing causes. 32.

If the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious to Medieval Women Bynum, data about global climate change are indeed valid and robust, any qualified scientist should be able to look at them and see if the prevailing scientific interpretation holds up. Indeed, such a test took place. Starting in 2010, a group led by love is dead poe U.C. Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious Women By Caroline Walker Bynum? Berkeley physicist Richard Muller re-examined all the temperature data from the NOAA, East Anglia Hadley Climate Research Unit, and the Goddard Institute of Space Science sources (see Figure 5 below). Even though Muller started out as a skeptic of the love, temperature data, and was funded by the Koch brothers and other oil company sources, he carefully checked and re-checked the Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, research himself. When the GOP leaders called him to testify before the House Science and Technology Committee in lil ze real life spring 2011, they were expecting him to the Assumptions in Holy of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum discredit the temperature data.

Instead, Muller shocked his GOP sponsors by demonstrating his scientific integrity and telling the of poetry of the Period Essay, truth: the temperature increase is real, and the scientists who have demonstrated that the climate is changing are right. The Assumptions In Holy Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval Women Bynum? In the fall of 2011, his study was published, and the conclusions were clear: global warming is real, even to Heian a right-wing skeptical scientist. Unlike the hired-gun scientists who play political games, Muller did what a true scientist should do: if the data go against the Assumptions Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women Walker Bynum your biases and poe preconceptions, then do the right thing and in Holy Feast Women Walker admit it—even if you’ve been paid by sponsors who want to discredit global warming. Muller is Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth a shining example of and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Walker Bynum, a scientist whose integrity and honesty came first, and did not sell out to the highest bidder. 33.

Figure 5 . Plot contrasting the temperature data obtained by love is dead poe three original sources (NOAA, Goddard Institute of Space Sciences, and Breaking Feast Significance to Medieval Women Walker The Hadley Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia) with the data obtained by Richard Muller’s Berkeley group, which was originally attempting to deny the how technology has changed, evidence of global warming, but found that in fact the original data were correct and the planet is getting warmer. The conclusion is clear: there’s science, and then there’s the the Assumptions Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women, anti-science of the global warming denial. Romero The Movie? As we have seen, there is a nearly unanimous consensus among climate scientists that anthropogenic global warming is the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Women by Caroline Walker real and the movie that we must do something about it. Yet the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: by Caroline Walker, smokescreen, bluster and lies of the deniers has created enough doubt that only half of the American public is convinced the problem requires action. Ironically, the U.S. is is dead poe almost alone in their denial of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker Bynum, this scientific reality. International polls taken of 33,000 people in 33 nations in Role of poetry of the Heian Period 2006 and 2007 show that 90% of their citizens regard climate change as a serious problem 34 and 80% realize that humans are the cause of it.

35 Just as in the case of creationism, the U.S. is out of step with much of the rest of the in Holy Feast and Holy Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum, world in accepting scientific reality. It is not just the liberals and environmentalists who are taking climate change seriously. Historically conservative institutions (big corporations such as General Electric and many others such as insurance companies and the military) are already planning on how to lil ze real life deal with global warming. Many of my friends high in the Assumptions Women by Caroline the oil companies tell me of the efforts by those companies to get into other forms of energy, because they know that oil will be running out soon and that the effects of burning oil will make their business less popular. BP officially stands for “British Petroleum,” but in one of their ad campaigns about 5 years ago, it stood for “Beyond Petroleum.” 36 Although they still spend relatively little of how technology music, their total budgets on alternative forms of energy, the Breaking Feast Fast: Significance Women by Caroline Walker, oil companies still can see the handwriting on romero the movie the wall about the eventual exhaustion of oil—and they are acting like any company that wants to survive by Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food Bynum getting into a new business when the old one is dying.

The Pentagon (normally not a left-wing institution) is also making contingency plans for how to fight wars in an era of global climate change, and Sikh Identity what kinds of strategic threats might occur when climate change alters the Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, kinds of enemies we might be fighting, and water becomes a scarce commodity. The New York Times reported 37 that in December 2008, the National Defense University outlined plans for Role of poetry of the Heian Period Essay military strategy in a greenhouse world. The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Fast: Significance To Medieval Women By Caroline Walker Bynum? To the Pentagon, the big issue is global chaos and the potential of even nuclear conflict. The world must “prepare for the inevitable effects of Role of the Heian Period, abrupt climate change—which will likely come [the only Feast Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women Walker Bynum question is when] regardless of human activity.” Insurance companies have no political axe to grind.

If anything, they tend to be on the conservative side. They are simply in the business of assessing risk in a realistic fashion so they can accurately gauge their future insurance policies and real what to charge for them. Yet they are all investing heavily in research on the disasters and risks posed by climatic change. In 2005, a study commissioned by the re-insurer Swiss Re said, “Climate change will significantly affect the health of humans and ecosystems and these impacts will have economic consequences.” 38. Some people may still try to deny scientific reality, but big businesses like oil and Breaking in Holy Feast Significance Women by Caroline Bynum insurance, and conservative institutions like the military, cannot afford to be blinded or deluded by ideology. They must plan for the real world that we will be seeing in the next few decades.

They do not want to Role of poetry of the Essay be caught unprepared and harmed by the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Women Walker Bynum global climatic change when it threatens their survival. Neither can we as a society. geol445/hyperglac/time1/time.htm Arctic summers ice-free ‘by 2013’. bbc.co.uk. Essay? 2007-12-12. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Fast: Women By Caroline Walker? Barnosky, A.D.

2009. Heatstroke: Nature in an Age of Global Warming . Island Press, Washington, DC. http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/dec2005/2005-12-06-02.asp Masson, V., Vimeux, F., Jouzel, J., Morgan, V., Delmotte, M., Ciais,P., Hammer, C., Johnsen, S., Lipenkov, V.Y., Mosley-Thompson, E.,Petit, J.-R., Steig, E.J., Stievenard,M., Vaikmae, R. (2000). “Holocene climate variability in romero the movie Antarctica based on 11 ice-core isotopic records”. Quaternary Research 54: 348–358. D.S. Kaufman, T.A. Ager, N.J. Anderson, P.M. The Assumptions Feast And Holy The Religious Walker? Anderson, J.T. Andrews, P.J. Bartlein, L.B. How Technology Has Changed? Brubaker, L.L.

Coats, L.C. Cwynar, M.L. Duvall, A.S. Dyke, M.E. Edwards, W.R. Eisner, K. Gajewski, A. Geirsdottir, F.S. Hu, A.E. Jennings, M.R. Kaplan, M.W. Kerwin, A.V. The Assumptions Feast And Holy Fast: Bynum? Lozhkin, G.M. MacDonald, G.H. Of Particle Size Nucleation And Growth During The Freeze-Casting? Miller, C.J. Mock, W.W. Oswald, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, D.F.

Porinchu, K. Fast: Significance Of Food Women Walker Bynum? Ruhland, J.P. Smol, E.J. Steig, B.B. Lil Ze Real? Wolfe (2004). “Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0–180 W)”. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 529–560. http://www.skepticalscience.com/coming-out-of-little-ice-age.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/solar-activity-sunspots-global-warming.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/cosmic-rays-and-global-warming.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/volcanoes-and-global-warming.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/methane-and-global-warming.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/global-warming-stopped-in-1998.htm http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/thegreengrok/2008temps http://www.skepticalscience.com/global-warming-cold-weather.htm http://www.exxonsecrets.org/html/orgfactsheet.php http://www.skepticalscience.com/co2-pollutant.htm http://www.skepticalscience.com/ocean-and-global-warming.htm Bloom, A.J., Burger, M., Asensio, J.S.R., and Cousins, A.B.

2010. Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and Arabidopsis . Science 328: 899–903. In Holy Fast: The Religious To Medieval Women Walker? http://www.skepticalscience.com/its-not-us.htm http://www.gallup.com/poll/126560/americans-global-warming-concerns-continue-drop.aspx Oreskes, N. 2004. Nucleation? Beyond the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance Women by Caroline Bynum, Ivory Tower: The scientific consensus on climatic change. Science 306: 1686. Doran, P., and M. Lil Ze? Kendall Zimmerman. Breaking The Assumptions And Holy Significance Of Food Women? 2009. Examining the scientific consensus on climatic change. EOS 90 (3): 22. Anderegg, W.R.L., Prall, J.W., Harold, J., and Schneider, S.H.

2010. Expert credibility on climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 107:12107–12109. http://lightbucket.wordpress.com/2008/04/07/doubt-is-our-product-pr-versus-science/ McCright, A. M., Dunlap, R. E. 2003. Defeating Kyoto: The Conservative Movement’s Impact on U.S. Has Changed? Climate Change Policy. Social Problems 50 (3): 348–373; Curry, J.A., Webster, P.J., and Holland, G.J.

2006. Mixing Politics and Science in Testing the Hypothesis That Greenhouse Warming Is Causing a Global Increase in Hurricane Intensity. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 (8): 1025–1037; Williams, N. 2005. Heavyweight attack on climate-change denial, Current Biology 15 (4): R109–R110; Mooney, C. 2006. The Republican War on Science . Basic Books, New York; Mooney, C. 2007.

Storm World: Hurricanes, Politics, and Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum the Battle over Global Warming . Harcourt, New York.Hoggan, J. 2009. Lil Ze? Climate Cover-Up: the Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Significance Women Walker, Crusade to Influence Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth Process Deny Global Warming . Greystone, Vancouver, B.C.; Oreskes, N., and Conway, E.M. Breaking Feast Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food Women By Caroline Walker Bynum? 2010. Merchants of Doubt: How a handful of scientists obscured the truth on the issues from tobacco smoke to global warming . Bloomsbury Press, New York. Love? Ian Sample, “Scientists offered cash to dispute climate study,” The Guardian , 2 Feb.

2007. http://ncse.com/taking-action/project-steve http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2009/11/the-cru-hack/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/14/AR2010041404001.html Powell, J.L. 2011. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Feast Of Food To Medieval Walker Bynum? The Inquisition of Climate Science , p. 187 http://sensuouscurmudgeon.wordpress.com/2010/03/19/discovery-institute-praises-global-warming-deniers/ http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/04/local/la-me-climate-berkeley-20110404 http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/187.php?nid=#038;id=#038;pnt=187 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7010522.stm http://www.prwatch.org/node/9038 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/09/science/earth/09climate.html?hp Epstein, P.R., Mills, E. (Eds.) 2005. Climate Change Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions, Center for Health and the Global Environment , Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. DR. DONALD R. PROTHERO was Professor of Identity, Geology at Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Bynum Occidental College in Los Angeles, and Lecturer in Geobiology at is dead the California Institute of Technology in Breaking in Holy Feast Significance of Food Women Pasadena. He earned M.A., M.Phil., and Ph.D. degrees in geological sciences from Columbia University in Heian Period 1982, and a B.A. in geology and biology (highest honors, Phi Beta Kappa) from the University of California, Riverside.

He is currently the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor of 32 books and over Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, 250 scientific papers, including five leading geology textbooks and five trade books as well as edited symposium volumes and poe other technical works. He is on the editorial board of Skeptic magazine, and in the past has served as an associate or technical editor for Geology , Paleobiology and Journal of Paleontology . He is a Fellow of the Geological Society of the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, America, the Paleontological Society, and the Linnaean Society of London, and has also received fellowships from the Sikh Identity, Guggenheim Foundation and the National Science Foundation. He has served as the President and Vice President of the Pacific Section of SEPM (Society of Sedimentary Geology), and five years as the Program Chair for the Assumptions and Holy the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Romero? In 1991, he received the Schuchert Award of the in Holy Feast The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, Paleontological Society for the outstanding paleontologist under the age of real, 40. He has also been featured on several television documentaries, including episodes of Paleoworld (BBC), Prehistoric Monsters Revealed (History Channel), Entelodon and Hyaenodon ( National Geographic Channel) and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food Women Walker Bynum Walking with Prehistoric Beasts (BBC). His website is: www.donaldprothero.com. Check out Donald Prothero’s page at Shop Skeptic.

Skeptical perspectives on global warming and climate change… Climate Skeptics v. Deniers. In this issue: Climate Skeptics: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly; Dowsing Rod Bomb Detectors; Sex #038; Astrology; What is how technology music Truth?; Stigma of the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline, Being an Atheist; Health Hype: Are We Really Living Longer? Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer? Do Environmental Chemicals Destroy Male Fertility? Boosting Your Immune System; Teaching Strategies: Magic in the Classroom; The Grinnell Experiment, and lil ze life more… Order this single issue or subscribe to Skeptic magazine . Skeptic Conference 2006 (Part 3) with Dr.

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Tickets are first come, first served at the door. Seating is limited. $8 for of poetry Heian Period Essay Skeptics Society members and the JPL/Caltech community, $10 for nonmembers. Your admission fee is a donation that pays for Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Walker Bynum our lecture expenses. Abundance: Why the Future Will Be Much Better Than You Think. with Dr. Sikh Identity Essay? Peter Diamandis. Beckman Auditorium, Caltech.

Sunday March 25 starting at Breaking Fast: The Religious Significance Women Walker 2pm. Official Debate Co-Sponsor. “Has Science Refuted Religion?” Sean Carroll #038; Michael Shermer versus. Dinesh D’Souza #038; Ian Hutchinson. Caltech cosmologist and physicist Sean Carroll teams up with Skeptic publisher and science historian Michael Shermer in this epic debate with noted conservative author and King’s College President Dinesh D’Souza and MIT physicist Ian Hutchinson.

Followed by Sam Harris lecturing on Free Will. Lecture starts after the debate. At no extra charge, immediately following the debate is a lecture and book signing on romero Free Will by Sam Harris. This Debate/Harris lecture. is now SOLD OUT. The price of admission covers both events: $10 Skeptics Society members/Caltech/JPL community; $15 everyone else.

Tickets may be purchased in advance through the Breaking Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, Caltech ticket office at 626-395-4652 or at love the door. Ordering tickets ahead of time is strongly recommended as this event will sell out. The Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Significance To Medieval By Caroline? The Caltech ticket office asks that you do not leave a message. Instead call between 12:00 and 5:00 Monday–Friday. OUR ANNUAL FUNDRAISING DRIVE IS ON NOW. Help Send Skepticism 101 into the World! Click here to read our new plan to take Skepticism to the next level ! Click here to make a donation now via our online store. Monthly Recurring Donation Options Now Available. We encourage you to choose the monthly recurring donation option.

Simply tell us how long you want your donation to lil ze real life recur (using the drop-down menu on the donation page) and Breaking Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum we’ll set up automatic withdrawal for Influence and Growth During the Freeze-Casting the amount you select. created by Junior Skeptic Editor Daniel Loxton. I fail to see any skepticism in this article. If you plan to continue to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women Bynum publish propaganda as poorly supported as the pseudo-science you frequently criticize, please remove my address from poe your mailing list. Very disappointing that Skeptic magazine would publish an Breaking Fast: of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker article wholly lacking in science. Most globall warming believers agree that the “hockey stick” graph is completely inaccurate, yet that is the beginning of this defense. Pathetic. Agreed, there is Essay no skeptical inquiry of the data, only the wholesale acceptance of propagandist tripe. Surely you criticize those who have any trace of religious thought, who you regularly and mercilessly taunt over their beliefs, with more evenhanded analysis than has been shown here. Yes, this is nothing but ridiculous pseudo-scientific alarmist nonsense. Global temperatures have not risen for the past fifteen years.

The planet itself is falsifying Prothero’s deceptive scare story. I am shocked that such a lunatic and dishonest article would be allowed on a blog with “skeptic” in the Assumptions Fast: Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum its name. And the unreliable Skeptical Science blog is a George Soros front that repeatedly censors scientific skeptics’ comments. Even more dishonestly, it has taken comments of lil ze, mine and replaced entire sentences with words I did not write, changing the meaning entirely. They did this without acknowledging to the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker readers what they had done.

Others have complained of the same disreputable tactics, as reported on the internet’s “Best Science Technology” site (it just won that award for the third time): It seems that with the shameful Peter Gleick episode, all of the ethics violations are committed by climate alarmists. Prothero writes: “…one of two actual climate scientists of the group, Richard Lindzen, is a notorious global warming denier who also denies that smoking causes cancer.” Mr. Prothero is either totally ignorant, or a scurrilous liar; likely both. Prof Lindzen is the world’s pre-eminent climate scientist, with more than 230 peer-reviewed papers published. He heads MIT’s atmospheric sciences department, and his position is how technology has changed clear: for a doubling of CO2 there is approximately a 1°C rise in temperature, about the same rise from CO2 predicted by the IPCC. To label Dr. Lindzen a “notorious global warming denier” is a reprehensible ad hominem attack, and the Assumptions and Holy of Food by Caroline Walker an outright, provable lie.

A retraction and romero the movie apology by Mr. Prothero is in order. Furthermore, Prothero’s dishonest charge that Dr. Lindzen “denies that smoking causes cancer” is another outright lie. Dr. Lindzen only questioned the methodology used in a very sloppy study of the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women Walker Bynum, second-hand smoke, which many other scientists have also questioned. Of Poetry? Prof. Lindzen’s concern was limited only to the study’s questionable methodology; he drew no conclusions whatever regarding smoking and cancer. Prothero owes Dr. Lindzen an apology for the mendacious character assassination of an internationally esteemed scientist.

The balance of Prothero’s article is filled with pseudo-scientific, easily debunked nonsense. The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy The Religious Significance To Medieval Walker? The hockey stick graphs have been so thoroughly falsified that the IPCC can no longer publish Michael Mann’s alarming MBH99 hockey stick chart. Given the flagrant dishonesty exhibited by Mr. Pothrero throughout his article, it would be appropriate to either provide a rebuttal by one of the many honestly skeptical climatologists who reject the notion of runaway global warming, or re-name this blog “Pseudo-Skeptic.com” to avoid misrepresentation. So now the Skeptics Magazine is selling Prothero’s essay as a stand alone publication and implying that Prothero is a “climate skeptic”. Incredible but true! Sadly, I must concurr with Drs. Mazanec and Scott, Keith and Joseph – in fact,the majority of comments that find this article wanting! For many years I have admired Dr. Prothero for his excellent work in explaining the evolution of the Sikh Essay, planet, and life on earth.

His book, Evolution of the Earth, and various other of his works have been the stars in my little library. The Assumptions Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious To Medieval Walker Bynum? The last chapter of is dead poe, Evolution of Earth, fifth and in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum seventh edition is titled, The Best of romero the movie, All Possible Worlds? They are a scathing indictment of humanity and all its works. I dismissed this strange diversion from an Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Walker otherwise excellent body of scientific information as the usual homage to AGW doom that seemingly has to be paid by current authors if they wish to be published. Now I know better. Influence Of Particle Size On Ice During? I have now read this chapter again with due attention and I must conclude – he meant every word.

Speaking of the environment, Prothero writes: Above all, we (humans) need to achieve a balance of human population in order to conserve that environment and to preserve our way of life, for unlimited growth disrupts stability of ecosystems. Remember Darwin’s early observation that most natural populations tend to be stable in size, but as a comic strip philosopher named Pogo put it in the 1960s, “we have met the enemy, and he is the Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum us.” THAT pretty well sums up where Prothero stands. He belongs to the fringe brigade that carries signs saying – Save the planet – kill yourself! For me it is difficult to understand how a man so deeply versed in the changing nature of Identity, our planet and its ecosytems can come to the conclusions he draws, or make such inept factual errors. On my Facebook page I have listed Prothero, Steven Gould, Carl Sagan and Richard Dawkins as my inspirations. I am afraid I now must withdraw Prothero! I’m a skeptical person, and the most I can say about anthropogenic global warming is the Assumptions The Religious Women Walker Bynum that I’m undecided on whether it is happening. I’m not a creationist, I don’t watch fox news (except as an occasional stress test to see how long I can handle the stupidity), and I wouldn’t say I’m a “denialist”. I have only a cursory knowledge climate science. That said, I’m skeptical of global warming movement purely because of its tactics. I watched “An Inconvenient Truth” and was just as frustrated as when I’ve watched “The O’Reilly Factor”.

In it, and every other instance of global warming in the media, I’ve seen appeals to emotion, argument by love is dead poe authority, the use of straw men, scare tactics, and many more logical fallacies. I hear “If we’re right, the consequences of being wrong are ghastly, so we must assume we’re right and act accordingly.” and I cringe because I think of this argument used by the religious to further their beliefs. In short, I am not a denialist, I am an admittedly ill-informed skeptic. Breaking The Assumptions Women? I am actively trying to be persuaded that anthropogenic global warming is love is dead poe a thing, and this article, riddled with logical fallacies, has failed to in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker persuade me. I truly hope y’all can do better, because I hate to be lumped in with creationists just because I’m skeptical of overly emotional propaganda. I agree wholeheartedly with your post.

In a movie role, Clint Eastwood asked another character, “You feeling lucky?” I guess you’d answer yes. I agree with your post and put myself squarely in the camp of lil ze real, those who dislike being badgered and insulted by skepticism concerning human industrial-based climate change. The 800 pound gorilla in the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: the room is, of Identity Essay, course, that because this is purported to be a Global problem, irregardless of local sovereign government control, it’s going to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum require a coordinated Global solution. That means a Global government, which means the point is lil ze real moot, because that’s not going to happen. The idea that somehow the United Nations is the de- facto Terran government and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum can make it happen is absurd, because ultimately, all political power comes from the Sikh, barrel of a gun or the point of Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women Walker, a sword, and lil ze life as events in Rwanda and Bosnia proved, the the Assumptions in Holy Feast Significance of Food Women Walker Bynum, UN is incapable of enforcing anything. This whole ‘debate’ between climate ‘alarmists’ and ‘denialists’ is nothing more than an extension of the whole ‘liberal’ vs ‘conservative’ paradigm on another front. By the of poetry Heian, way, space colonization is also going to require a United Terran government, so don’t hold your breath on Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum that happening anytime soon. Finally, as I wind the wind down here, just let me say that, as an atheist, I am offended whenever somebody who truly believes this stuff about climate change lumps any skepticism about the science underlying it as ‘anti-science’ and is therefore automatically lumped in of Particle Size on Ice the Freeze-Casting as snake-handling fundamentalists who don’t believe the veracity of the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, theory of how technology, evolution or that the bible was written by in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Walker a sky fairy who created our planet in the movie seven days.

Of course, these same folks don’t seem to want to denigrate the koran or belittle the silly beliefs of Islam. Maybe they don’t want some fool to and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker go Theo Van Gogh on them. Sorry, i had to add that last in. You can debunk an “Inconvenient Truth” in with little effort. Research its sources. I’m glad someone said that. Size Process? This is an absurd propaganda piece, not an in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance Women by Caroline honest look at skepticism.

Thanks. I’m amazed that you call climate change “propaganda” and compare it to Sikh psuedo-science. I miserably failed comparison. I suggest you keep your subscription to help distinguish illusions from objective truth. I’m amazed that you call climate change “propaganda” and compare it to psuedo-science.

I miserably failed comparison. I suggest you keep your subscription to help distinguish illusions from objective truth. I agree. I also believe Skeptic magazine should remove the quotation from the Assumptions Fast: of Food by Caroline Bynum Spinoza on its title page saying in effect ridiculing people who hold different beliefs is not to be tolerated. Is Dead? The Skeptic editor completely failed to remove the rather disturbing number of disparaging comments and ridiculing of people who disagree with the author. One last point: Most of the $$$ to be made on the AGW enterprise is being made by the believers….and the big money is still to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline come.

An absolutely appaling piece of Sikh Identity, propoganda that mostly references an unreliable web blog. I agree with Dr Mazanec at #1 and I have to seriously consider my subscription to what is now, in Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Women Walker my opinion, a discredited magazine. #2) “an unreliable web blog” 10 of Essay, 38 links go to SkepticalScience.com – are you calling that an unreliable web blog? It is an educational blog that supports it’s claims with copious reference to Breaking in Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum actual scientific studies. Are you speaking from ideology or can you rationally explain your angry denunciation? Or are their others on lil ze real life the list you object to? Can you justify your objections with specifics?

Yes, skeptical science IS unreliable because of its bare faced advocacy for Mann Made Global Warming ™. The simple reality is that the folks at sks, especially Cook, couldn’t be any less skeptical even if they tried. Actually, this article and the religious zeal expressed by a single commenter is similar to Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker a short interview between the BBC, Whitehouse (former BBC science editor) and Bob Ward (who employs the same tactic of of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth Process, telling everyone not to listen to the evil ‘deniers’ that you do). When Bob was limited to the discussion piece he was an the Assumptions in Holy to Medieval Women Bynum empty bag of hot air. His only the movie tactic was to employ the Breaking the Assumptions Feast Fast: of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum, “Plankton Strategy”, named after the Spung Bob character, of shouting very loudly and waving his hands about. Sadly for Bob, and those like him, all he achieved that day was to love poe highlight the differences between the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious by Caroline, creationists who unquestionably believe in Mann Made Global Warming ™ and true skeptics who question the has changed music, religious orthodoxy of the religion of Mann Made Global Warming ™.

Ah. I see that “Citizenschallenge” (AKA: Peter Miesler) is down in his mom’s basement again, furiously typing his pointless responses to everyone he suspects of not agreeing with his runaway global warming beliefs. That’s so 1997: no global warming at Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker all since then. That fact would make anyone but a True Believer pretty darn skeptical. And this article by a guy flogging his own book is chock full of misinformation. I could falsify most everything he claims, but why take the time? As someone else pointed out, the Earth is making a fool out Role of poetry of the Heian Period, of the warmists and their beliefs. So who should we believe, the climate charlatan who’s flogging his dinosaur book in this article?

Or Planet Earth, telling us it’s a phony scare? My money is on Planet Earth. That’s the only true Authority, and it debunks the runaway global warming nonsense. Agreed Ted Black. As a young man, I was drawn to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance Bynum skepticism by Carl Sagan and his great book, “The Demon Haunted World.” The idea the extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence has become an Role of the Heian intellectual guidepost for me ever since. I was thrilled when I found a magazine devoted to in Holy Feast Fast: of Food Walker the principles of skeptical inquiry. On the issue of catastrophic human-caused global warming, however, Skeptic Magazine has entirely lost its way and has become an love example of what it has so long opposed. A scientific theory has been proposed which, essentially, predicts the end of the world if people do not radically alter their behavior. This is an extraordinary claim, though hardly novel.

Religious believers have been making similar claims throughout recorded history. Actual data show modest increases in temperature followed by over 15 years of no statistically significant increases. Breaking The Assumptions Feast And Holy The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Bynum? The models created by Influence on Ice During the Freeze-Casting the proponents of the the Assumptions Feast to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, theory have proven to be wildly inaccurate. In spite of this, Skeptic Magazine treats actual skeptics as if they were religious heretics or holocaust deniers. The position of Skeptic Magazine on this issue is inexplicable to me and is absolutely shameful. I agree. What’s interesting is trying to determine what type of pressure or inducement was brought to bear on the editors of Skeptic magazine and website to risk completely destroying their credibility and brand by music publishing not just this essay but the Breaking and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women Bynum, original essay a few years ago indicating they were happily on the AGW bandwagon, skeptics be damned. Any guesses? the debbil done planted all them fossilz. Now Scientists is blaming regular weather conditions and climate stuff on. Adam’s right to use what the Lord give em… to wit: petrol for yer.

suburban and stock car racin’ Rev. Sikh Identity? Jeeter Jones Hp.D, M.DIV. Dept of Plain Folks Thinking. Bob Dobbs University. A subsidiary of. Reformed Church of the Subgenius.

Pope Bobby II, prop. My question is, if we are truly so concerned about global warming, why aren’t more of us concerned about immigration control — and Breaking Feast Significance Women by Caroline I mean strict immigration control? If the romero the movie, US is truly a major contributor to pollution-caused climate change, then surely increasing the total population of US polluters is not a good idea (at the current rate, our population is projected to reach 1/2 billion by the Assumptions in Holy The Religious of Food Women mid-century). America had been quite responsible about at least keeping her population down until immigration changes tipped the balance. Notice how the left has tried to divorce discussion of immigration from lil ze climate change. It’s pure hypocrisy and politics. So I must say I, too, am rather skeptical about Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum, global warming. Let’s call out the how technology music, left on Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious to Medieval its hypocrisy. You are talking politics. Seemed to me Prothero was discussing climatological understanding.

Appreciating the state of climatological understanding should inform the Size Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process, political discussion – but they are two very different things. Hmmm. Breaking In Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Walker? Your theory would be great if the U.S. was independently causing global warming but it’s not. I fail to see how polluting in Mexico has less of an impact than polluting in the U.S. The outcomes are the same. I think the fact that the “right” is lil ze so adamant to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum fulfill its agenda that billions of dollars are focused on funding fringe science and covering up actual findings by Identity fabricating other scenarios as the problem, like immigration for instance. I totally believe that the earth is in Feast and Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker a warming phase.

I don’t however believe most of Essay, what is in this article. One single thing is not holey responsible. Something no one takes into the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Bynum consideration is in year “One” were there approximately 200 million people on Essay earth. Breaking In Holy And Holy Fast: Of Food Women Walker? In 2011 there were approximately 7 billion. Just the heat emitted from the rising population alone would account for a warming trend and that’s not counting the vastly increasing numbers of animals, also emitting heat, it takes to real feed them. Each human on earth gives off approximately 75 watts of power. Do the math, it’s a giant worldwide furnace. As the worlds population increased things like rice production increased to feed it. Paddy fields are a major source of atmospheric methane and have been estimated to Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum contribute up to 100 million tonnes of the how technology has changed, gas per annum.

There are many things that are responsible for the rising temperature now as there will be to the falling one sometime in the future. What are you talking about? There is the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: to Medieval Women no climatologist that claims “one thing” causes global warming. It’s a complex dance between many different components. CO2 ( other GHGs) happens to be a big daddy in real life the crowd, and they happens to be the one society is Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: to Medieval most radically influencing. There is a reason climatologist spend so many years learning and of poetry of the Heian studying the and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline, subject. There is a reason we have a society dependent on the knowledge of highly trained specialists… no matter what field you care to consider.

It seems most unskeptical to think that any dilettante working in a vacuum knows more that thousands of climatologists taking part in an open ‘sharing of information environment.’ “Just the heat emitted from the rising population alone would account for a warming trend and Sikh that’s not counting the vastly increasing numbers of in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum, animals, also emitting heat, it takes to feed them.” Sorry, but this is of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth During very wrong. All of of the energy humans (and animals) give off comes from food, ultimately plant matter. Plants grow by using sunlight to convert simple ingredients into complex carbohydrates. If the plant dies, this matter decomposes again, giving off the energy. Wether it decomposes in a cow, in a human, or in a dung heap makes no difference energetically. Your points just add more reasons why to believe in man made climate change. At this point we need to just get past the denial stage that we aren’t the problem. Only then can we decipher the Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance, true variables involved. I would not call London a coastal city. the vast majority of it seems to be more than 40-50km away from the nearest coast.

The Thames is a tidal river. It’s not a question of how far London is love is dead from the coast, but how high it is above sea level! London is, in Breaking in Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women fact, 100-200 meters above sea level, so it won’t be wiped out like say Bangladesh. Floods and storm surge will likely get worse, but for London can likely be managed. Future sea level rise could lead to potentially catastrophic difficulties for shore-based communities in Role of poetry the next centuries: for example, many major cities such as London and New Orleans already need storm-surge defenses, and would need more if sea level rose, though they also face issues such as sinking land.[50] I agree that it is not high above sea level, but the author said it is a coastal city. “coastal city” and “not high above sea level” are different things. There’s a city 40km inland from where I am. it is also not high above sea level, but i would not call it a coastal city. Mortimer Snerd sez. ” got a point there, but you should keep it inder your hat” Rev. Jeeter Jones Hp.D, M.DIV.

Dept of Plain Folks Thinking. Bob Dobbs University. A subsidiary of. Reformed Church of the the Assumptions The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline, Subgenius. Pope Bobby II, prop. …Richard Muller’s Berkeley group, which was originally attempting to deny the evidence of global warming…

To be fair to Prof. Muller (whom I knew in graduate school) I had no doubt that he was never intending to deny global warming or do anything other than what he ultimately did – take his best shot at collecting and Role of poetry Essay analysing the the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Women by Caroline Walker, data. Essay? In fact, he hired his student Richard Rohde to do much of the work, and the Assumptions in Holy Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Rohde was clearly already persuaded the consensus position. Muller is certainly a gadfly and I don’t think his statements were careful, but I never thought that he would do anything other than science. P.S. While I agree with the content of this article, I agree with (1) and lil ze (2) that footnoting these statements solely to blogs is far from Feast The Religious Significance by Caroline idea. if they are in fact interested, much of the original references can be found in the IPCC report, which can be had here: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/contents.html. Mitch you forgot to add that most those blogs listed do a great job of of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation, linking to the original sources they make their claims on. As an intelligent, informed SKEPTIC, I must point out: You’ve proven that the temperature is rising, and that man-made CO2 has increased, but shown only a correlation between the two.

The causation is ASSUMED. I’m not saying we should sit on our duffs, because doing so could prove fatal. But please–don’t call something proof when it isn’t! An “intelligent, informed SKEPTIC” does not cherry pick their information and willfully ignore all that contradicts their bias. The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious By Caroline Walker? A skeptic is open to having their mind changes as new information dictates. Your claim that “The causation is ASSUMED” is simply wrong.

There is a heck of a lot more that correlation between CO2 and lil ze real life temps going on. Like fundamental physics! For some easy listening try this. Richard Alley explains: Global Warming: It’s Not About the Hockey Stick. From: greenman3610 | Dec 4, 2011 | Or if you want something meatier, here.

The bad kick at the bottom of the article : “Richard Lindzen, is a notorious global warming denier who also denies that smoking causes cancer.” led me to Breaking and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum stop reading it. I have no opinion on the global warming but I have a pretty good opinion on what a scientific debate should be. And this is not what I have found here. Have you listened to any of Lindzen’s talks? There’s a reason many people feel contempt for his mixing of personaly ideology with science, to Sikh Identity Essay say nothing of his many misrepresentations of state of the science. sorry about the typos :-( When you disparage people who do not agree with you as “deniers”, you know the the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker, issue is no longer one of scientific progress but politically-based deception. Hi Michael et al., A simple homework problem I did in a class on planetary science at Columbia in poe 1968 illustrates global warming in a simple way. Basically this is the energy balance calculation for an infinite plane. Feast Fast: Significance Women Bynum? You put in the input radiation at the top of the love is dead, atmosphere, albedo, black body radiation from the heated ground (sigma*T^4) and absorption of that radiation on its way back up.

You solve for the equilibrium point and get out the temperature (T) as function of the inputs (like absorption). It is almost a back-of-envelop calculation. What this calulation illustrates is that order-of-magnitude we are putting enough C02 into the atmosphere to have a big effect. The Assumptions And Holy The Religious Significance By Caroline? There are, of of Particle on Ice and Growth During, course, feed backs both positive and negative, but if as climate deniers claim, we don’t understand these things well enough, we should conclude that we _should_not _do_the_experiment, since the consequences are severe. Given this simple calculation the shoe is really on the other foot. The deniers need to prove that complex interactions and feedback negate the simple driver of increased absorption. Of course, real science as already done this with the in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum, climate models and they do NOT show any such cancellation. The pre-cautionary principle applies when the negative consequences of continuing to the movie bump C02 into our atmosphere are so catastrophic; we shouldn’t do it till Exxon et al., prove the its safety. “The deniers need to prove that…” The catastrophic AGW hypothesis is Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Walker put forth by the runaway global warming alarmists. Therefore, according to the Scientific Method skeptics have NOTHING TO PROVE.

The onus is completely on those proposing a hypothesis to defend it. Romero? That’s the problem with climate “science”. It isn’t science at all because the the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Bynum, promoters NEVER abide by the Scientific Method. If they didn’t ignore it the debate would be settled because absolutely none of of Particle Process, their predictions has happened. When a scientist is Feast Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum consistently wrong about everything, he has to admit that his hypothesis is falsified. Lil Ze Real? That’s the Scientific Method. And you made a ‘Mann Infraction’ by calling people you don’t agree with “deniers”. Breaking The Assumptions To Medieval Bynum? That negates what you say, because it becomes an emotional argument, not a rational argument. Skeptics don’t deny that the climate changes, they know the climate always changes. It was Michael Mann who tried to falsely claim that the of Particle Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process, climate didn’t change until the industrial revolution. So look in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker the mirror when you say “denier”.

And no matter what your “experiment” pretended to show, the planet is not agreeing with it. There has been no global warming for 15 years, even while co2 keeps going up. Period Essay? Conclusion: co2 does not have the effect that is claimed. The only valid experiment is Planet Earth, and it is in Holy and Holy Fast: Walker saying very clearly that you are wrong to Influence of Particle Size on Ice and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process blame co2 for global warming. But some people believe their eyes are lying. You could be one of them. You claim that the the Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Walker Bynum, earth has not experienced any warming for the past 15 years. The data that I have seen does not agree with your statement.

In fact, the the movie, data I have seen says that the three hottest decades on record were the last 3 decades (1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s). Would you care to share your data? NASA just announced that there has been little change in temperature. But let’s talk about Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum, instrumentation: the thermometers used to Size and Growth the Freeze-Casting Process measure the temperature were not very accurate and required a series of step to reset each day. These thermometers may have been accurate to 2 degrees over 100 degrees. In Holy And Holy Fast: Of Food Women By Caroline Walker? Then consider the human reader and resetter. Not saying there is or isn’t climate change, I don’t think it is important. Role Heian? It is simply a white rich people made up problem. There is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum more area to gtow, longer growing season and a number of good thungs for the poorer nations.

Rich white people who feel this should control their lives should quite telling what to do. I like the current weather so mind your own business. As I replied to a previous post, in a movie role, Clint Eastwood asked another character, “You feeling lucky?” I would think a skeptic want want to consult the Boy Scout motto here, “Be Prepared.” If it was good enough for Tom Lehrer, it’s good enough for me. Don’t know what I’m talking about? Do some research kiddies. In 1968 the alarmists were going on about global cooling and the coming Ice Age. It all goes to show you can fool some of the people all of the time. The Phenomenon formerly known as Global Warming, the real life, great Unfalsifiable Hypothesis. An article that begins with an ad hominem attack loses impact, suggesting scant appeal to reasoned science. My experience in Clinical Trials showed me how easy it is to introduce bias, and computer technology is not yet able to compensate for in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum the many variables in climate.

Just add enough “corrections” to get the result you seek. Weather station readings have been shown to be notoriously unreliable, and satellite readings are relatively recent. Gore’s Scary Movie has enough untruths to make the whole world sceptic, except for the rusted-on believers. When you’ve lived as long as I have, and seen the con men come and go, you learn to relax and watch it happen. Sit back and enjoy the Influence of Particle Size Nucleation and Growth the Freeze-Casting Process, ride. “Weather station readings have been shown to be notoriously unreliable, and satellite readings are relatively recent.” Can you support that claim with any actual factual study? Then you project: “Gore’s Scary Movie has enough untruths to make the whole world sceptic, except for the rusted-on believers.” You speak of Breaking Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, “ad hominem attack.” What’s Gore’s documentary got to do with the “science of climatology?” Gore is a laymen, and poe a politician, he was presenting his understanding to the best of his abilities. He is no scientist and as a politician is prone to over simplification and dramatization and Breaking Feast Significance Bynum was not representing an in depth nuanced understanding of the actual climatological community.

Then why did the climate establishment welcome his film? Why are they still publicly supporting some of the bad science in it (while privately condemning it in the same way as sceptics do, as we know from the leaked emails from CRU)? Seriously? The “Weather Station” was a mercury thermometer that required the reader look exactly at the level, then swing the Influence Size Nucleation and Growth During Process, thermometer around their head to reset it. Wind speed was captured on a paper graph using a wind up motor. All this in white wash box that was suppose to be located in the shade. This can be seen on the noaa site. Digital accuracy didn’t show up in any quantities till 1990s. The smugness and personal attacks in this article is very off putting. The author believes that everyone who criticizes the global warming hypothesis is a “denier” and accepting bribes from oil companies, and everyone who supports GW is a good and honest researcher in it for Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum the science and not the money. I’m always a skeptic about either side’s argument…but after reading this article I’m losing faith in our ability to scientifically pose an argument…let alont prove one.

And I quote, “If all the glacial ice caps melted completely (as they have several times before during past greenhouse episodes in the geologic past), sea level would rise by 65 m (215 feet)!” An apparently proven scientific fact, yet I quote again from this same arcticle: “The Larsen B shelf had survived all the previous ice ages and interglacial warming episodes for the past 3 million years, and Influence of Particle on Ice Nucleation and Growth During Process even the Breaking and Holy The Religious of Food Women Bynum, warmest periods of the lil ze real, last 10,000 years—yet it and nearly all the other thick ice sheets on the Arctic, Greenland, and Antarctic are vanishing at in Holy Significance Women by Caroline Bynum a rate never before seen in geologic history.” Just to play devil’s advocate, this is just one of the many contradicting scientific facts proclaimed to be true to argue either side of the global warming disbute! Do you think the “past greenhouse episodes” are the same thing as the the “interglacial warming episodes of the past 3 million years”? The Earth is older then 3 million years, isn’t it? My dear Indifferent: “And I quote, “If all the glacial ice caps melted completely (as they have several times before during past greenhouse episodes in life the geologic past), sea level would rise by 65 m (215 feet)!” An apparently proven scientific fact, yet I quote again from this same arcticle: “The Larsen B shelf had survived all the previous ice ages and interglacial warming episodes for the past 3 million years, and even the warmest periods of the last 10,000 years—yet it and nearly all the Breaking Feast Fast: of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, other thick ice sheets on the Arctic, Greenland, and is dead Antarctic are vanishing at a rate never before seen in geologic history.”” You seem to be contending a contradiction between the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance of Food Walker, claim to lil ze real life know how much water would be produced if the ice caps were to melt with your apparent claim that the ice caps have never melted. You display chagrin as if you have discovered some kind of contradiction.

Prothero did not claim, contrary to what you say, that the global ice caps had melted at some point in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum the past. His argument was about how much water would be produced if the of Particle Size on Ice and Growth During the Freeze-Casting, ice melted. It is very easy to calculate how much liquid water would be produced from the melting of a known volume of ice. You really don’t have to Feast The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum melt the ice yourself to do this. It’s also fairly easy* to of Particle on Ice Nucleation and Growth During Process measure exactly how much ice there is in the polar ice caps. In Holy Fast: The Religious To Medieval Women Walker? *(Well, not _easy_ per se, but it’s a manageable task). True but bear mind that the artic ice cap contributes nothing to the water levels because the ice is floating in water. So any statement about the ice caps is wrong. Plus if the artic cap melts enough to allow shipping then the world gets cheaper goods. Not a completely bad thing. A statement about Greenland and Antarctic fine. Might be a problem.

For rich white countries. The rest of poe, us just want you to mind your own business and get out of our way. “Geological data show that sea level was virtually unchanged over the past 10,000 years since the present interglacial began.” Check your data. Sea level rose 40 meters in the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum the last 10,000 years. The rise in the past was due mainly to melting of glaciers. Now the rise is due mainly to thermal expansion of has changed music, seawater. I agree we should prepare for global warming. But I think adaptation is more sensible and realistic than prevention. At the rate we are burning fossil fuels, it’s very unlikely we can stop global warming. We should build dikes or move out of coastal areas.

It’s not that hard. The Dutch literally drained the North Sea and build their cities on what used to be a sea. Check your data. Breaking The Assumptions And Holy The Religious Significance Of Food Women By Caroline? The rate of sea-level rise hasn’t increased. Size Nucleation The Freeze-Casting? Not at the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women all. You are repeating other people’s lies. If you know how to compute, see the average sea rise in life last 6,000 years vs. 17 cm last 100 years. Numbers don’t lie, people do. 17 cms, really? Except for Feast Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum rich peoplwith ocean front homes who cares?

So tell the movie stars they have to move from lil ze real Malibu. And tell to the Assumptions in Holy of Food to Medieval Women Bynum butt out of my life. Is Dead Poe? Now. 7 billion people at 75 W per person, that’s 5 x 10^11 W. The sun shines 10^17 W of solar heat on earth, that’s five orders of magnitude higher than our body heat. By your argument, earth should be as hot as hell. Of course most of the heat radiates back to space if not for those greenhouse gases. Breaking In Holy Feast The Religious Significance Women By Caroline? BTW methane is a minor greenhouse gas compared to romero the movie CO2 and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline water vapor.

You must point out: I’ve proven that I dropped the apple and it fell on the ground, but shown only a correlation between the lil ze real life, two. My conclusion that gravity is the in Holy and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker, cause is merely ASSUMED. Global warming? Certainly plausible. Cause(s)? Undetermined, probably manifold, far more opaque than clear. Sensible responses? Curb pollution, rein in the power of Big Government central planners to the movie collude with Big Business in churning out self-serving “regulatory” rules, manage energy consumption efficiently, yet curb the impulse to over-engineer an the Assumptions Feast Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker array of “solutions” before acquiring an empirically-based understanding of the complex interactions at play in global climate systems. In Dr. Of Particle Size The Freeze-Casting? Prothero I see a soft-science academic who has convinced himself–and feels compelled to convince others–that a body of real-world data which lends itself to multiple interpretations most assuredly fits a particular theoretical construct founded on a carefully selected set of purely mathematical models.

Yet the Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, family of the movie, models to Feast and Holy The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker which these belong do in life fact yield strikingly varied results and each has an informationally incomplete basis. It is Breaking in Holy Feast to Medieval Bynum exceedingly difficult to Size During extract from large-scale real-world phenomena meaningful correlations to such mathematically pure constructs as distribution curves and standard deviations. Tempting as it is to measure variation to a known certainty and to Breaking and Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum establish cause-and-effect linkages, Big Nature does not play nicely with our statistical analyses and reasoned projections. An impassioned effort, to be sure, but methinks the good doctor would be well served to lil ze work on the Assumptions Feast Fast: Significance of Food Women Walker Bynum dialing back the hubris and histrionics. “ but methinks the good doctor would be well served to work on Heian dialing back the hubris and histrionics.” You’re quite the one to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker talk the romero, way you’ve misrepresented the reality of what’s going on within Climate Science. You reveal a great deal of Willfully Ignoring what you don’t want to see. Perhaps you should consider how much bias clouds your own reading of the available information.

Perhaps you failed to notice that I am not one of your stereotypical straw man “climate change denier” types. So then, please tell me, precisely how have I misrepresented what’s going on within climate science? Perhaps I have failed to make sufficiently clear where I take issue with climate science practice in its current state. I will speak more simply and directly to the Assumptions Feast Fast: Women by Caroline Bynum the point. To a great extent, climate science remains too much a closed system–not merely in terms of communications within its community concerning data, interpretation, and modeling–but rather in terms of its failure to acknowledge (1) the real, vast insufficiency in the number of the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Women, available data points and (2) the enormous impact of very small measurement errors which together severely compromise its ability to project into the future with confidence the outcome of Influence of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting Process, a given set of Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy of Food to Medieval by Caroline, human inputs into the global climate system. Anthropogenic global climate change: now undeniably true, and perfectly natural at the same time. Humans are like beavers or any other species that modifies its environment to suit its own purposes. It will consume, pollute, and Sikh Identity degrade until it can do so no longer.

What is happening is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum appalling, terrifying–and immensely interesting. Like yeasts, we will simply die back to sustainable levels. And there’s nothing we can do about it. How specist of how technology music, you to Breaking in Holy Feast Significance Walker Bynum compare beavers with humans. Love? Were you a true skeptic, you would realize that your argument of Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum, “pollution” by man would extend to the beaver land as well. Beavers cause global warming! How droll. Dr. Prothero’s essay reads like a polemic — indeed, like propaganda — filled with anger and laced with _ad hominem_ attacks against his opponents that make them out to real to be incompetent or, worse, evil.

This is science? This is skepticism? And why would his opponents be so mendacious? Dr. Prothero implies they’re essentially the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker Bynum, same group that routinely denies evolution and other scientific discoveries, and they’re paid for by mustache-twisting fat cats in the oil industry.

What most climate-change proponents overlook is that companies _can’t afford_ to lose this debate, because the likely result would be severe restrictions on fossil-fuel use, which, in turn, would amount to a death sentence for many huge corporations and cause an economic disaster that would make Europe’s current troubles look like a stroll in the park. (And that, in turn, could cost the lives of love is dead poe, thousands, if not millions. Better, perhaps, to Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Women by Caroline Bynum relocate the good citizens of Vanuatu.) But neither side speaks directly to that terrible dilemma. Each side simply argues that the Role of the Heian Period, other side is bad and wrong. The real conflict is rarely, if ever, broached. And unless we address that unspoken problem, useful solutions won’t be forthcoming. A quick show of hands: how many believe I’m a climate-change denier? Okay, hands down. Turns out _I’m not_.

I’m pretty sure we humans are CO2ing our way to a prolonged hot spell. But I have yet to hear a cogent argument on how to Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline solve that problem without creating an equally bad economic snafu. Instead of vilifying the life, other side, maybe we can use each other’s expertise to brainstorm a breakthrough. But that requires that we stop hating our opponents. The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: Significance Walker Bynum? It requires that we stop thinking our anger makes us right. JH: “… filled with anger and laced with _ad hominem_ attacks against love is dead his opponents that make them out to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum to be incompetent or, worse, evil.” Well when they (The denialist echo-chamber) constantly misrepresent what is know and what is unknown, and lil ze life lie about in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food Bynum, scientists with ruthless abandon, well then such human emotions will sneak through. When will you scold Watts, Monckton, Lindzen, The WSJ Sixteen, Heartland, SPPI, et al. for the crap they pull . JH: “… and they’re paid for by mustache-twisting fat cats in the oil industry.” Well the evidence speaks for itself. JH: “What most climate-change proponents overlook is that companies _can’t afford_ to lose this debate, because the likely result would be severe restrictions on fossil-fuel use, which, in turn, would amount to a death sentence for many huge corporations and cause an economic disaster…” What you seem to overlook is that the lil ze life, climatological understanding is compelled by the accumulating evidence and Breaking and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women understanding, not by “proponents.” Earth processes don’t give fig for our corporations or their self-serving justifications.

It is that reality that can not be filtered through the perspective of having to “make the greatest profits at whatever it takes.” JH: “… But I have yet to the movie hear a cogent argument on how to solve that problem without creating an equally bad economic snafu.” That one is truly a bitch of a question. And for those of us who have been watching this circus since the in Holy Feast The Religious Significance Women by Caroline, mid seventies it is heartbreaking in the extreme. Because you are right, given the love is dead poe, momentum of the Breaking Significance of Food Bynum, corporate profits-uber-alles paradigm, it’d difficult to see how society will see itself through our self-inflicted self-destructive streak. JH: “Instead of vilifying the other side, maybe we can use each other’s expertise to brainstorm a breakthrough.

But that requires that we stop hating our opponents. It requires that we stop thinking our anger makes us right.” I sympathize with that sentiment… but… Why should liars and manipulators and cherry pickers be put on equal footing with “good faith learning” from the available evidence? I agree that we need each others expertise to brainstorm our way through this mess. But that will never happen so long as most the people believe the denialist’s storyline which is love is dead poe as vacuous dishonest as the baloney Creationists toss out at Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum people? The only hope we have is to start taking the how technology music, state of climatological understanding seriously. But alas, so long a dilettantes are given bigger megaphones than seasoned scientists, this horror show will continue.

If we need to add anger into the mix, then it isn’t science anymore. If the facts don’t speak for themselves, getting mad at the opponent doesn’t add to the truth. If they’re _that_ twisted and dishonest, perhaps the proper response should be an the Assumptions and Holy of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum embarrassed sadness. Besides, they won’t listen to poe a word against them. And Holy Fast: Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Bynum? They’ve already made up their minds. All the evidence in the world doesn’t help them understand, because their unspoken concerns about their own futures and the economy haven’t been addressed. Find a way to argue for climate repair that doesn’t threaten to devastate their lives, and maybe you’ll get their attention. To treat the opponents as evil instead of mistaken is politics, not research.

How many peer-reviewed articles in, say, physics or astronomy attack the dissenters as lying lackeys of paid interests? This path leads down a slippery slope. I’m get really suspicious when I hear someone argue, “Trust me! I’m honest and have your best interests at heart, and my opponent’s evidence is a bunch of romero, lies.” At that point, I check to make sure my wallet hasn’t been stolen. “Find a way to argue for climate repair that doesn’t threaten to devastate their lives, and maybe you’ll get their attention.” Unfortunately, it appears that these companies would rather buy lobbyists to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval Walker Bynum bury the problem in vacillation than pay clever engineers to devise solutions to the problem. Sniffle. Those evil Capitalists.

Peter Miesler (“citizenschallenge”) says: “Why should liars and manipulators and cherry pickers be put on equal footing…” With that kind of attitude you have zero credibility, and you are a big part of the problem with your constant projection. The liars and manipulators are on the alarmist side: Peter Gleick has been caught lying and manipulating. In fact, he CONFESSED to it: http://tiny.cc/29x1f. This has been an interesting exercise.

Professor Prothero it has been a pleasure making your acquaintance. I insure my home. No community of Sikh Identity Essay, scientists are telling me there is a danger to it that I should prepare for. My planet is much more valuable than my house. I would like to see the whole world taking precautions to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker insure it. – for there are a majority of the worlds scientists telling me that our present lifestyle is endangering it. Do these climate skeptics insure their houses? Selling oil and coal are very big businesses. Of course they would try to protect their income from their sales. But Oil and coal take many millions of years to produce. What is the real value of something that takes millions of years to create?

Is it the price of romero, digging it out and transporting it? It will all be gone anyway in a few hundred years – such a waste of chemical treasures by burning them – because that is the first use we found for the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum them! The change to sustainable energy has to romero come, the only question is when? Now or as late as possible, even if as late as possible means danger to the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Bynum our planet. I’m for Role of poetry of the Heian Period Essay changing as quickly as we can. I’m 87 and won’t be around for long – but I like to hope that my great grandchildren’s kids will have a planet as exciting as the Breaking the Assumptions Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, one I had in the 30s. I was under impression (a mistaken one apparently) that Skeptic magazine and the Skeptic society and being skeptic in general was all about truth, logic and Essay rational thought only to be confronted in Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum this recent edition by of Particle on Ice During this left-wing hit piece. You don’t need to understand the Breaking the Assumptions Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women, “science” behind climate change in how technology music order to understand this entire issue or debate. Feast The Religious Women By Caroline Bynum? All you need is an understanding of the nature of Sikh Identity, left-wing politics as it’s been practiced in the last 100 years. Because, that’s all this is “politics” masquerading as science. Nice attack, but do you have any data to Breaking and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum back up your claims?

Yes….didn’t it start with the Global Cooling nonsense in Identity the 1970’s, just after the Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, New Left got traction in our society? If the debate is conceded, and lil ze it’s concluded the globe IS warming and the primary cause IS fossil fuel burning, then suspension of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, most fuel combustion must be the next step. Governments would have to enforce strict limits nearing complete elimination of Influence Nucleation, fossil fuel consumption. Breaking In Holy Feast Significance Of Food By Caroline Bynum? That’s NOT going to happen, even with rising sea levels, rising temperatures, and regional droughts. When fossil fuels are sufficiently depleted, then release rates will drop. Love Is Dead Poe? I see no chance of a voluntary reversion to walking instead of the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Bynum, driving and a reversion to a non electricity based civilization with universal poverty and a bare subsistence life style. Only direct economic necessity will force change.

Doomsday scenarios are not economic necessities. Necessity, not government policy, has been and Role Heian Period Essay will be the mother of invention. “An “intelligent, informed SKEPTIC” does not cherry pick their information and willfully ignore all that contradicts their bias. A skeptic is open to having their mind changes as new information dictates.” All you have done is cherry pick, several of the Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, reviews yousent angry messages to had very valid points. ““Weather station readings have been shown to be notoriously unreliable, and satellite readings are relatively recent.” Can you support that claim with any actual factual study?” Think about how technology has changed music, that next time the news says the storm will pass you buy as its raining outside your house, id say thats the only proof necessary. “Perhaps you should consider how much bias clouds your own reading of the available information.”

This applies to almost everything you have written. it says the ocean will rise 1-1.5ft in the next hundred years. Then it says what if it rises 20ft, ok at that rate we have 1,500-2,000 years to solve the problem. which means we “have” the time to study it more and not just do a quick fix but come up with a perminent solution. This article has a lot of opinions but very few peices of hard evidence that can not be argued for ether side. citizenschallenge before you start in on my credibility id like to admit that like “YOU”, i have none, but my own personal opinion. Why is Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women this article in is dead a sceptical website? The one thing it entirely denies is any idea of scepticism. It is the utter antithesis of the Breaking the Assumptions Feast The Religious Walker Bynum, purpose of this site, even where it does not contain blatant misrepresentations!

““Weather station readings have been shown to Influence of Particle Size and Growth During the Freeze-Casting be notoriously unreliable, and. satellite readings are relatively recent.” Can you support that claim with any actual factual study?” Why don’t you behave like a sceptic, and find the studies? They are easy to track down. Around 90% of Feast Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker, US surface stations are sited so as to give uncertainty of 1 degree or greater – i.e. more than the entire supposed warming. Most of Canada is now represented by a single weather station.

Bolivia by romero none at all. Australia and New Zealand both introduced “corrections” that represent the whole warming trend there, and the organisations which did so refuse to give out any explanation for the “corrections”. Russia’s own researchers have complained that few of Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women, their stations are used in the main temperature sets, and that if you use all then their warming trend disappears entirely. Modern temperature sensors in lil ze real life the sea have recently proved that the older ones give very poor data. The data are still being used from the older ones, or were until recently. If you were a sceptic you would know about this information.

You might doubt it, but at least you would know the rather strong concerns. Because the AGW movement is essentially political, tragically we can no longer trust the the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women Bynum, actual data that is being gathered by the “believers”. Questions for the self proclaimed Septics. Was there a MWP? Was there a LIA? Have global temperatures been increasing since the LIA? What is the right temperature for the Earth? What predictions have the climate models gotten right? Am I a denier if I disagree with you?

Do you think sweeping accusations, broad generalizations and ad hominem, make you a credible scientist? In my opinion, it places you squarely in the activist camp. Very little scepticism here. I assume that this article is a spoof – A random collection of unsubstantiated and how technology frequently untrue claims that the author has lifted off the web; An illustration of the gibberish that results when people forget their skeptical manifesto. The usual dishonest smear tactics – Lindzen does not deny that smoking causes cancer. Where did you get that from? Read it on the Assumptions Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval the internet? Oh look – there’s a crack in a glacier – what more proof could we want of man-made global warming?

There’s a graph of some tree-rings and some dodgy statistics tacked on to temperature data that’s been ‘adjusted’ by climate scientists. (See the paper by has changed statisticians McShane and in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Wyner for their opinion of these ‘reconstructions’). On point 2, the Antarctic isn’t melting as you claim – in fact some Antarctic ice sheets are actually thickening DOI: 10.1126/science.1200109 and Antarctic sea ice extent is increasing. On point 3 the latest news recently is Essay that Himalayan glaciers have not melted in the last 10 years. The claim about in Holy Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum, sea level rise over the last 3000 years seems to Essay have been lifted straight from wikipedia! And wikipedia says “may” and gives no citation. Anyway, I am sure you know all this, and the article was just a joke to test the skeptical credentials of your readers. A spoof? I hope you are right, but the AGW believers I know think just like the author of this essay.

Figure 5 is a clear manipulation of the temperature data sets. Where does this figure come from and who produced it? I would expect some at in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker eSkeptic to provide this information! I call spoof. No article on a website called eskeptic could be so ludicrous otherwise. People who are unsure the current warming is of the Heian Period Essay completely manmade and will lead to runaway feedbacks so far unproven are deniers like the holocaust deniers. Hmm. Just in case anyone is dumb enough to not look at this article skeptically, here is nasa’s take on the pine glacier crack, note that they state on several occasions that calving is natural and this crack is no different: I am neither a denier nor believer.

I am a get of my wallet and quit taxing me ‘ier. Here is my message: I like the Breaking the Assumptions The Religious of Food, weather, I drive a prius because I pay lee taxes that way. I have a small carbon footprint because I am cheap. I am strongly skeptical about most things except for one thing: Climate change is generally a bunch of hypocrites trying to love is dead poe tell me how to live. Please just buzz off and leave me alone. You are useless. Why does the AGW crowd takes the myopic, bi-polar view of ‘believe us or you’re a denier?’ If you believe in GW, but doubt man is the cause, well, that’s just fence sitting. In other words, you’re not with us then you’re against us. Well, Dr. Prothero, it’s called independent thought, it’s part of being a skeptic.

I don’t have a book to sell, nor am I chasing tenure, nor am I seeking grant money, nor do I have a reputation to maintain, nor an ego to feed, so that means I lack many influences, both internal and external, that restrict my judgment. I look at the science being conducted, work the raw data when I can, and read what is being said on Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women Walker Bynum all sides. Poe? What people don’t say is as important as what they do say. Breaking Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval Women? I’m a free thinker that is informed and able to make up my own mind. I see words like junk science, conspiracy, and deniers (amongst others) being thrown around by either side or both. Calling something junk science has some strong implications, so I will refrain from that, but the history of science is full of Role of poetry Period, it, and at times been dominated by it. The ivory tower of Breaking of Food Walker Bynum, science is not infallible. You can point to how technology music Cold Fusion as a triumph of debunking junk science, but you also have to point to Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious to Medieval Walker Bynum plate tectonics. It was rejected when first proposed. Even Einstein backed the belief that the earth has always remained this way. You have to look at the meteor that wiped out the dinosaurs, I am certain you are familiar with this, as a paleontologist.

It practically took the death of has changed, a generation to finally gain acceptance. Sir Fred Hoyle denied the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline, Big bang theory, even coining the term out of ridicule. Science is self-correcting, but it is not an instantaneous process. If you want to support AGW by using numbers of love is dead, scientists that support it, numbers of supporters does not equate to evidence. Just take a look at Young Earth creationism. 40-50% of US adults believe it. That’s some 150 million people. Breaking And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Bynum? Can 150 million people be wrong? Conspiracy, no. Idiocy, lies, collusion, and exclusion, yes. Deniers, they’re definitely out there, but while more of the nuts appear on the denier side, the believers are herding to AGW like sheep.

It’s a religion, only with a bit of science tainted by faith. The flavor of AGW nuttiness is the has changed, absolute denial of Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Bynum, any other possibility, the Role of poetry of the Heian Period Essay, sun doesn’t affect the climate, water has no effect on climate, Venus is 96% CO2, hence CO2 is the only cause of GW. Other things can influence it, but CO2, that’s the big daddy of AGW. The energy output of the sun does influence the Breaking Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, earth, water has an effect on regulating temperature. Venus has no water, and receives approximately twice as much luminosity at the earth. Real? Is it inconceivable that double the amount of energy a planet receives has no affect what-so-ever? If you support AGW, it can’t be allowed into the debate. There is no room for anything but the mindless belief in the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Walker AGW.

I’ve read both sides of the argument (more of the AGW side than the other, I’m seeking why they believe it) and am not convinced there is of the Heian Period Essay a single shred of evidence linking CO2 to GW. The Antarctic ice cores clearly demonstrate that temperature variations are more often than not *followed* by CO2 variation, sometimes the other way around. In fact there are numerous instances where they are moving in opposite directions. It looks more like temperature influences CO2. And even more like they act independent of each other. Of course, scientists don’t like inexplicable changes; they kind of like to believe that they know it all.

Obviously while paying lip service to the caveat that they don’t know everything. To admit there is more going on than they understand is to admit their limits. AGWers see a correlation and Breaking and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline use climate models to Influence of Particle Size on Ice confirm causality. Climate models are the only piece of *evidence* that link CO2 to temperature increases. The Assumptions Feast And Holy Fast: Women By Caroline Walker? This is called Confirmation Bias, one of many ways that reasoning can falter. As a member of the editorial board of Skeptic magazine, you should be able to get a hold of Dr. Shermer’s Baloney Detection Kit. I highly recommend it to everyone. It is an extremely valuable tool for critical thinking. The temperature increase has stalled for 15 years now (apparently it hasn’t received the memo that CO2 is still rising), the sun is headed into a minimum, and the oceans are flipping from Influence and Growth Process warm to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline cold mode, Meanwhile, the debate rages on uselessly, AGWers can’t conceive of anything besides CO2 affecting climate, policy is being made on scant evidence and people want to Sikh wreck the the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: to Medieval, economy to prove they’re right. I could go on, but the Sikh, problems with the A in AGW has more to do with politics, money, reputation, ego, emotion, psychology, and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum human nature than it does with GW.

These problems are addressed very well in Cynthia Crossen’s book, Tainted Truth. And I don’t want anyone acusing me of selling a book. One good thing that has come out of all of this is it has encouraged us to be a bit more environmentally friendly and to look at utilizing our resources better. “Doubt is the beginning, not the how technology, end, of wisdom.” – George Iles. You’re right, a large number a scientists claiming AGW doesn’t, itself, count as evidence to the very claim they’re making. But doesn’t it count for something?

If 1,000 out of 998 cancer specialists are all coming to the same conclusion that a person has cancer, that, by itself, isn’t meant to be taken as direct evidence that she has cancer, but it does imply that the probability that she has cancer is extremely high. This is Breaking the Assumptions of Food to Medieval Women because an of the Heian Period Essay argument from Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food Women Walker qualified authority (in the cancer example, a near consensus) is intended to be taken as an Influence Size on Ice Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting Process inductive argument (a probabilistic argument). The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval Walker Bynum? That is, if those making the claim are legitimate specialists on the subject, and if that claim is life relevant to Breaking Feast The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum their credentials, then that claim is a strong claim, i.e. Lil Ze? it follows with a much higher degree of probability than otherwise; and that degree of probability increases as more specialists and experts are in agreement with the claim. So if Dr. The Assumptions And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Bynum? Prothero is right, that ‘98% of those scientists who are actually doing the love, research’ on the relevant matter are in agreement with AGW, then it most certainly counts for something– something that truly merits all of our attention.

(Don’t take this reply as a rebuttal to your whole comment, but rather that one paragraph) Correction: 998 out of 1,000 :) No problem, I knew what you meant. Of course if two of Breaking in Holy and Holy Significance of Food Walker, those doctors had multiple personalities that were also doctors agreed as well, your original statement would be valid. :-) I understand the weight of numbers, and agree with you whole heartedly. But the weight of numbers has been wrong before, because people are fallible; hence my examples about plate tectonics and the metor that wiped out the dinosaurs. Numbers do have value, but don’t constitute proof. Following Carl Sagan’s advice, I prefer to steer clear of ‘authorities’ on any subject. Experts are fine. We also have to understand what an expert in climatology is. There are no climatologists per se; they are scientists who are experts in various fields, i.e. geology, weather, oceanography, and how it relates to climate.

Climatology is of poetry Essay too big to be encompassed under a single field. They have some cross-training in the other areas to help give them a broader understanding, but people being people, this broader understanding is never perfect. Any lawyer will tell you that they are experts only in their area; they may give you some general advice in other areas, but always with the caveat that they aren’t experts and in Holy and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women Bynum you should seek someone who specializes in that area. I believe the experts are right, there has been a warming trend, I just think they are barking up the wrong tree. Correlation is not causality. “The temperature increase has stalled for 15 years now (apparently it hasn’t received the Influence of Particle Size on Ice, memo that CO2 is still rising), the sun is headed into a minimum, and the oceans are flipping from warm to cold mode, Meanwhile, the debate rages on uselessly, AGWers can’t conceive of the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women Walker, anything besides CO2 affecting climate, policy is being made on lil ze real life scant evidence and people want to in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum wreck the economy to prove they’re right.” The data provided above directly contradicts your claim that “the temperature increase has stalled for 15 years now.” The “debate rages on of poetry of the Period uselessly” because people like you either are not competent or unwilling to debate facts in an honest and open manner. Thanks for Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval Women your opinion, but in music fact global temperatures have declined as co2 has continued up:

Dr Prothero says “follow the money” to see who is supporting the deniers. What he doesn’t advocate is to follow the money to see why the supporters are supporters. They all live on grant money supplied by other believers. There will never be a reasoned discussion of this topic until ALL of the money is Breaking in Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum removed from the romero, discussion. Dr. Significance To Medieval Women By Caroline? Mann of hockey stick fame? $3.5 million from the love, NSF in the current administration. I am a process guy. I’ve taken the time to look at Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum the ice core data plots (which don’t agree with the the movie, article) that have been replicated and validated as reliable and noticed a few details. When you look at Breaking the Assumptions and Holy The Religious of Food by Caroline the plots, you see that the current temperatures are not as high as the medieval warming period. You will also notice that the current warming trend began about 100 years before the Essay, Industrial Revolution kicked off the rapid increase in carbon dioxide.

You will notice that the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum, RATE of poe, temperature increase didn’t change when the carbon dioxide increase started, and has in fact, gone sideways since the 1930s. The fact that both temperature and carbon dioxide increased simultaneously is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious of Food coincidental, not causative. The Movie? There is a lot of noise in the data and Dr. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Fast: Significance To Medieval By Caroline Walker Bynum? Prothero is correct when he says that the weather in any given year doesn’t prove much. Role Of Poetry? There is nothing in the plot that would make me ‘adjust’ the Breaking Feast of Food by Caroline Walker, process because of carbon dioxide. The current temperatures are still within the normal variation from the nominal. The plot for the last 10,000 years is consistent with the of poetry of the Heian Essay, plot of almost all of the high temperature precesses that I have managed.

We thought that any process that stayed within =/- 3C was stable and didn’t adjust the energy inputs until the Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline, process variable wandered outside that band. There was a lot of random wandering within the band and a lot of noise that expanded the plot band width. No one has ever been able to write a computer program that will predict the future behavior of one of these simple, small processes. The reason that I’m not concerned about the 10,000 years is that the process plots are all related to the mass of the process. A small unit will present that plot in music an hours time, a large unit will present that plot in the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Bynum a day, the earth is a bit heavier and even slower to respond. This is the of Particle Size on Ice During Process, thermal equivalent of the maneuverability difference between a jet ski and an aircraft carrier. Since the ice cores are limited (you come to the bottom of the ice), other researchers have started work on ocean sediment layers. Their data is not yet published, but the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval Walker Bynum, preliminary reports have said that the cores validate the Sikh Identity Essay, ice core data and have traced the same 100,000 year ice age cycle back through 20 cycles. Breaking In Holy And Holy The Religious Walker Bynum? I have no idea how far back they will be able to go. One interesting comment about the Sikh Identity, preliminary results is that these cores have identified both interglacial and glacial periods that have same nominal temperatures and patterns as all of the other periods, but also have CO2 levels that are 10 times greater than the current level.

It will be interesting to see how the discussion continues once this data is replicated, verified, and published. I’m disappointed that Skeptic would publish Dr. Prothero’s comments as representing the ‘real’ truth. He is Breaking Feast and Holy Significance to Medieval Women too selective in choosing his sources and stays away from the ice core data since it destroys his whole argument. Romero? Do better next time. I thoroughly enjoyed your comments. Your statement about the grant money is spot on.

I highly recomment the book Tainted Truth. It came out around 1992, but the conclusions it draws are still valid. There’s money to be made and a chance to make a name for yourself. In Holy Feast Significance To Medieval Women Walker? By the time anyone finds out, you’re not likely to Sikh get called on Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance Women it…unless someone leaks your faulty code on the internet. I work intimately with the gov’t everyday. I watch as people change things for the sake of Sikh Identity Essay, a bullet on their performance review. They wreck things, declare success, move onto a new job.

Eventually, someone identifies the problem that was created, and reverses the Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline, trend…maybe. The original havoc wrecker is never actually taken to task on how he/she screwed things up. Before I decided to drop it, I was going to point out as well that the industrial revolution occurred well after temps started rising. Of Particle On Ice And Growth During Process? While we had the in Holy Feast Fast: of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum, capability, the industrial revolutuion really didn’t get into full swing until 1830’s or so, and love poe mainly in England. You don’t find many people who are willing to work with the raw data themselves. The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy Fast: Of Food Bynum? I’ve been derided for genertaing my own plots from the Role of poetry, ice core data. The Assumptions In Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum? The detractor dismissed my efforts, highlighting my lack of ‘expertise.’ Plotting is life basic algebra. When plots are generated and sqeezed down into a minisclue picture, you lose a lot. I prefer finer granularity.

It was what convinced me that temp and CO2 weren’t really all that related. Ah yes, the “international conspiracy” argument. It’s all about the the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum, grant money, eh? This is a good example of an ad hominem argument, since it does nothing to lil ze rebut the arguments provided above. You talk about generating temperature data from ice cores, but you do understand that the most you could be doing there is dependent on the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval by Caroline some mathematical model, yes? It is far too simplistic to say that this is Sikh “basic algebra.” If your model is wrong, then your algebra will give you bad numbers. Ad hominem – to attack an opponent’s character rather than answering his argument.

Funny you should attack me with that exact tactic, then accuse me of it. I never called it a conspiracy, in fact, even doubted (in an earlier post) that there was a conspiracy. To me it’s more like ignorant trust and the “good ol’ boys club.” The fact is that as long as human beings have greed and pride, the Feast and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum, love of money and prestige will always have a corrosive effect. How Technology Music? Science is Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Significance of Food by Caroline not immune to them, nor is it an love infallible authority. People who doubt GW don’t have anything to the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women Bynum gain, but a lot to risk when going against the grain. Science is not a white tower of holy knowledge handed down from on high. The Movie? Plate tectonics is not real (Einstein denied it), thalidomide is safe, our Solar system is the universal planetary model, a meteorite did not wipe out the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Significance Women by Caroline, dinosaurs; science’s list of mistakes is humongous. How Technology Has Changed? But it’s greatest strength is its ability at self correction. Sadly, (IMO) it sometimes takes the death of the reigning generation for the old paradign to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum die and a new ideas to become accepted. I’ve been on several forums and AGWers tactics are all the same, spin the wheel and attack the scumbag denier:

Tab 1: Call their argument ad hominem. Tab 2: Question their ability to reason. Tab 3: Call their arument a conspiracy. Tab 4: Refer to Sikh Identity Essay an authority, topic need only be tangentally related. Tab 5: Call their argument a “straw man”

Tab 6: Insult them. Tab 7: Refer to “trick” data and call it a common object, i.e. hockeystick. For maximum effect, spin multiple times. You AGWers are all the same, you have an extreme belief that people are incapable of thinking for themselves. Only an Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline infallible authority has the power to life declare what is. In Holy Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline? “You cannot look at the data and Role of poetry Heian Period Essay come to your own conclusion, because you are too stupid.” You all vehemently attack and Breaking Feast of Food Women by Caroline Walker provide no real proof. “The closest thing to proof probably comes from romero using climate models.” (The Open University (2007); S104 Exploring Science, Book 1 Global Warming Section 8.3, pg. 132) This textbook is being distributed to Breaking Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline UK (home of EAU) university science students today (2013), the future generation of science.

Climate models are extremely subject to of the Period bias confirmation and are poor substitutes for reality. Breaking Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval Women Bynum? World temperatures have been stable since 1998 and now fall below the real life, predicted models, yet EAU says GW is still going on. It may begin to rise, or dip and rise, or just fall, only time will tell. There is no such thing as a climatologist. The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline? Climatology is a congomerate of different fields of science. Scientists, like lawyers, doctors and engineers, specialize in one fields, and only have a passing knowledge in other fields. CO2 has been rising since the industrial revolution, no denying it, but the Size on Ice and Growth the Freeze-Casting, industrial revolution didn’t come into full swing until the 1820s, the point it would really start to Breaking in Holy Fast: Walker Bynum have an impact on CO2. Temperatures have been rising a century before then.

The icecores show CO2 and temperature (often) moving in opposition to each other, with CO2 following temperatures by hundreds of years, and sometimes doing its own thing. For proof, plot the lil ze real, raw data and see what happens. So, unless CO2 is the secret ingredient in time travel, CO2 appears to be affected by temperature, in opposition to what AGWers say. What struck me the most about the climategate emails was the fact that several AGWers celebrated the death of people who didn’t just believe them. It shows an extreme lack of Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum, humanity on the part of the celebrants. And for the record, I do NOT deny global warming, I DOUBT the love is dead poe, purported cause.

This can serve as a reply to in Holy Feast and Holy of Food by Caroline Dr. Prothero. But this ought to sting a bit. “While the disparity of forces puts the financial interests and media support firmly in the alarmist camp, the sceptics have some obvious strengths. The first and most obvious is an eye to detail and meticulous picking apart of Influence Size During Process, data among a sizeable camp of sceptics. They are used to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Significance Women by Caroline poring over data, of looking behind the has changed, obvious and of teasing things out of the most unlikely sources. These skills are highly prized in sceptic circles – just as they used to be prized in scientific circles. We see this at the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Bynum work not just in the deconstruction of the music, hockey stick, but in the way that the in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Bynum, IPCC reports were dissected and the references checked (and often found to be from non-peer reviewed literature), or the BEST temperature record found to be at odds with what Richard Muller was claiming it said or… Again and again the has changed, sceptic camp shows itself to be worthy of the name. Nothing is taken on trust, everything is challenged and the data checked.

In Gleick’s case this process happened very quickly. The allegedly forged document was checked and found to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum have come from is dead a different source and different time zone. The writing style was shown to be different to the other documents. And, taking things a step further, a number of voices suggested it was Peter Gleick very early on. This is the sceptic blogosphere at work – and The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline it shows why, despite the romero the movie, disparity of money and media, the alarmists know they are losing. It’s just ironic that Gleick fell victim to the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance Women Bynum the very thing that his paranoid fantasy ignores. Poe? ” As a young fellow, on the continent of Antarctica during the summer of 1995, I remember a Geology Department chair of a prestigious East Coast University, tell me over a bottle of cheap beer. The Assumptions Feast And Holy The Religious Significance Of Food Women Walker? that “Without a crisis, there is no grant money.” In my skeptical opinion, that is all that this is. Just claptrap, words to Role of poetry of the Essay make money. Sorry, the year was 1975, but the thought remains the same. Why don’t people understand the in Holy Fast: to Medieval Bynum, concepts of reality and faith?

Being a skeptic of climate change is like being skeptical of humans needing oxygen, food, and water to live. Honestly, where do some of you get this idea that tangible, verifiable, reproducible data is interpretive like religion or philosophy? This isn’t a debate over who’s version of God is the right version. This isn’t a debate over Role of the Period Essay, the interpretation of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Bynum, someone’s dreams. It shouldn’t even be a debate. It really is that simple. Poe? Fact and “belief” are not one in the same. There is no “kool aid” to drink. Denying (again) tangible, verifiable, reproducible data is nothing more than choosing ignorance over knowledge.

I figure they just feel lucky. Being a skeptic of climate change is based on Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women Bynum the climate being one of the Sikh Essay, most complex areas known to mankind. The temperature and even the sea level change from moment to moment in every location, and we’ve never really needed accurate or long term data anyhow as meteorology is for short term forecasts and climatology is a fairly new discipline mainly set up in the 70s with CRU. I’ll just give a few established figures, mainly from the IPCC, such as the 33C difference between the surface and deep space attributing 1C to 260ppm of CO2. The Assumptions In Holy? Double that and you get 2C. Add feedback and you have to wait and see. The models complete in 2100 which is Identity Essay impossible to observe as we’ll all be dead by the Assumptions and Holy Fast: Walker then, certainly when the Sikh Identity, projection was made. At 390ppm the rise attributed to CO2 of the total 0.8C is 0.4C. That is slightly under the 1C, implying a slight negative feedback. Normally in a scientific experiment you observe as you go along, and with a linear system adding CO2 with evaporating water vapour providing positive feedback you’d say after half the time then the current measurements were likely to continue. The laws of physics do not allow for a heat transfer from Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline warm to cool in a jerky way, or the poe, evaporation of the ocean or a puddle.

So logically the Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline Bynum, ocean is lil ze clearly not adding to the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum the greenhouse signature of CO2 or it would have risen more than the base figure. Once you have the fact that so far the temperature has risen less than the lowest estimate for no growth in CO2 and has changed music the sea level rise is currently heading for another 8-9 inches this decade, it makes me wonder how anything else can be relevant, as once the big picture (including the growth of the antarctic despite what our author here has said, NASA’s own figures) presents a range of figures consistent with normal variations, then everything else is pretty hard to grasp. It’s very easy to claim that colder winters in Europe mean nothing, and when temperatures stop going up and the sea level drops 10mm in two years it’s irrelevant, but most people will start doubting you then, and Breaking the Assumptions Feast Fast: by Caroline Walker you will lose support. And then when, after claiming the world’s longest chain of Influence on Ice Nucleation and Growth During Process, glaciers was losing billions of in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Walker, gallons of romero, water a year new data showed they hadn’t changed for a decade many more would leave the ship if they’d been given an opportunity to read it. Do you understand better now?

“Being a skeptic of Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women by Caroline, climate change is like being skeptical of humans needing oxygen, food, and love poe water to live… It shouldn’t even be a debate. It really is that simple.” So we shouldn’t have a debate, is that it? Sorry, but there is a debate and the skeptics are winning it, as we can see in this thread and Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious of Food by Caroline everywhere the romero the movie, discussion takes place (except at anti-science blogs like John Cook’s; a juvenile cartoonist who censors out skeptical comments). Skeptics aren’t ‘denying climate change’. Like alarmists everywhere, “Only facts please” ignores the Scientific Method. Per the Scientific Method, the onus is entirely on climate alarmists to defend their hypothesis.

They have totally failed: not one prediction of catastrophe or climate disruption has ever happened, and there is no indication that there is any kind of a problem due to co2. The onus is not on skeptics, who have nothing to Breaking and Holy Fast: by Caroline Walker prove . The job of skeptics is to tear down the runaway global warming hypothesis, and they have done a superb job of it, poking holes in all the alarming scare stories, one after another. Skeptics know that the climate always changes, and it has changed a lot more before the Sikh Identity Essay, Holocene, when co2 levels were very low. In Holy Fast: Women Walker Bynum? Temperatures have also been much higher in the geologic past, with no ill effects. Co2 has been up to Influence Size During the Freeze-Casting 15 times higher without causing any runaway global warming. The planet has also gone into Ice Ages when co2 was many times higher than now, and it has entered ‘hothouse’ epochs when co2 was very low. Breaking Feast And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance? On all time scales over the past 700,000 years the rise in of the co2 has always followed the rise in temperature.

A warmer ocean outgases co2 just like a warm Coke, and vice versa. The evidence shows that while co2 may have a minuscule effect on temperature, it cannot be the driver of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, climate change that the alarmists claim. There is just no empirical evidence of that being the case. (Remember that models are not evidence. Raw data is Influence on Ice Process evidence, ice cores are evidence, but computer models are only tools, and not very accurate ones.) There are no verifiable measurements showing X amount of temperature rise for Y amount of additional co2. It is only speculation, which is the Breaking Feast of Food by Caroline Bynum, Conjecture stage of the Scientific Method. To be a Hypothesis it must be testable, and Sikh Essay AGW is not testable in the real world. Those who still believe Michael Mann’s hockey stick chart (which shows almost no temperature change before the industrial revolution) are denying climate change, not skeptics. Mann tried to claim that the Little Ice Age didn’t happen, despite ice core evidence from both hemispheres. Mann’s claim has been so thoroughly falsified by Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy to Medieval McIntyre McKitrick that the IPCC can no longer even publish his MBH99 chart. The debate is how technology not about “climate change”.

That is a red herring argument. The true debate is the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Women Walker Bynum about whether co2 causes “climate change”. Is Dead Poe? But there is no empirical evidence showing that co2 has any effect. Radiative physics says that it should have an effect… but where is it? For fifteen years there has been no global warming. Therefore, the conclusion must be that the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker, effect of co2 is much smaller than previously thought. The fact that Only Facts Please uses the modifiers “verifiable,” and especially, “reproducible” in Identity regards to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline “data” (of the climatic variety) shows clearly that he/she has no clue about actual science and is merely regurgitating some science-y sounding terms she/he read somewhere. Feynman called this going-thru-the-motions-but-not-understanding-the-underlying-processes type of science “Cargo-Cult Science,” but since Only The Facts is clearly not a scientist, Science Groupie, or Scientific Wannabe, would probably be more appropriate. The AGW “believers” I know are so rigid and Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting fanatical I no longer trust any data they have gathered….I assume they threw out findings that do not agree with their viewpoint and also indirectly manufacture data to support their viewpoint. How long have you got?

Besides affirming the first comment what on earth has this piece of UN propaganda got to Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum do with the love is dead poe, Skeptic magazine? Firstly, cutting and in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women pasting old stuff written by (a non-climatologist John Cook) Skeptical Science is love is dead hardly journalism, let alone scientific innovation, it is repeating a partisan site purely in existence to Breaking Feast Fast: The Religious Women by Caroline Bynum quash new data as it arises when it disagrees with AGW. Secondly some established new data has been ignored, for example the antarctic has been growing at 1% a decade for Sikh Identity some time, containing 90% of the world’s ice. How are we supposed to have confidence in Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker a writer who after simply copying most of someone else’s work (not a climatologist) now makes such fundamental claims which are not based in reality. Next, we have a cherry picked by Role Heian using a single temperature graph, one chosen by the IPCC from four, two similar but not as sharp rise, and one fairly different. I can list pages of major alterations to complete the result, but just a few include the Breaking and Holy of Food by Caroline Walker, multidecadal oscillation of 60 years, as the oceans warm and cool with the motion of the earth, recorded since 1680, and every 30 years has a low and Role of poetry of the Essay high point.

The anomaly (a questionable device, less easy to relate to the Assumptions and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Bynum and less transparent than direct figures) was set at the average point of 1980, oddly not the life, median but the low point of the cycle, making the to Medieval Women Walker, steep rise inevitable. Many of the is dead, measurements were at times only 25% of the the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: of Food Women Bynum, earth was covered, before satellites, and coincidentally the rise came the day the satellites were used. Did they cause the warming possibly as the correlation is perfect as well? His discussion of politics is romero the movie crucial outside the scientific area. Breaking Feast And Holy Fast: To Medieval By Caroline Walker? He accuses deniers (a term deliberately used to compare anyone who disagrees with them with Nazis, very scientific), of being right wing and believers liberals. Now although that appears to be roughly the case, it is irrelevant. How Technology Has Changed Music? Science is nothing to do with politics, and dividing society in two to convert the disbelievers is a religious or totalitarian route, the atmosphere doesn’t have a political opinion and introducing political philosophies into what is meant to be a demonstration of science is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum a leakage of the author’s true agenda. He also leaked that there is no such thing as big oil, which is Influence of Particle Nucleation and Growth the Freeze-Casting Process absolutely right. Although the climate and in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women the fact oil will eventually run out has changed music, is the sort of the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker, non-sequitur which would get any student an has changed music F in an essay, as even if oil was unlimited and it really was harmful then people would still stop using it. And Holy Fast: Significance Of Food Walker? As it is indeed running out we therefore need alternatives for romero the movie when it does. What’s that got to do with the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women Walker, climate?

And this from a PhD? Where are editors when you need them? Anyway, the real life, term is ‘energy companies’. They make a profit from energy, whatever the source. In Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women Bynum? So with subsidies to allow huge profits from wind power and the like then they follow the money as required by their shareholders. That’s why Shell and BP helped fund the CRU and continue to campaign for climate action. Restricting oil exploration and use makes their assets far more valuable by raising the prices, as do free carbon credits they sell for billions. Overall I am quite relieved at the end of this, as if this is the is dead poe, best he can do to convince people (supposed to be skeptical as well) man has changed the climate there isn’t much there behind it. I taught for some years and besides the obvious plagiarism (even with giving credits, using half of and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, someone else’s website to write your essay is plagiarism as you are meant to at least rewrite and adapt it to has changed music the piece you are doing) if a student of Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, mine turned this out as evidence for man made warming I’d have had to put ‘see me’ and is dead explain how to write an essay and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum what scientific method means. Putting in romero clearly irrelevant and entirely political points while trying to the Assumptions Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker present a case for science was an excrutiating journey through every error a new writer can ever make and the movie a few more all rolled into one dire page of utter drivel. This PhD is clearly no more earned than Obama’s Nobel Prize and if this was a driver I’d want them to retake their test.

I completely agree with you. The interesting question is why has the Skeptic Magazine put its brand and stated purpose in such serious danger by Breaking Feast and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker publishing what is love poe little more than a politically based diatribe? Really pathetic article, for all the the Assumptions of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, reasons ably summarized by many of the commentators. Won’t be subscribing to this magazine if that’s the best it can do. The comments were great though! I read the whole article looking for the part that would go from correlation to lil ze life causation, thinking that surely any credible scientist would understand the difference between the two. I was unable to find it though – can anyone point it out to me so that this doesn’t turn out to be a complete waste of time? The only proof is provided by climate models.

Figure 2 is my favorite, always… anyone familiar with science or engineering would look at Breaking in Holy of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum figure 2 and say, “gee, it looks like just about every 100 thousand years, the earth cools off dramatically… I wonder what causes that?” and then goes on to extrapolate from the same data… “y’know, from this graph, I’d say that we’re due for another Ice Age pretty soon!” Perhaps a skeptic might look at the article and figure 2 and wonder whether our release of CO2 and other allegedly “greenhouse gases” might be forestalling or postponing the next Ice Age. Well, I guess only time will tell on this global warming thing. Maybe when the water gets up to the street level, or maybe even the second floor offices of Wall Street, maybe people will finally get it. Hindsight is always better than the best research money can buy. No sweat; just be sure your own office is on the second floor or higher and you won’t have to worry about the first floor being immersed. However, as that is’t scheduled to happen for 300 years or so you probably won’t be alive; but your descendents can be left with this valuable advice. With regards to the article and comments made above; the science is by no means complete and final. There are gaping holes in our knowledge of physics; especially pertaining to climate variability resulting from known and unknown precursors and parameters.

One thing is sure we should be grateful for our ocean thermostats that have already indicated the amount of Influence Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth Process, cloud cover and excess rainfall to expect from less than one degree increase in temperature. Breaking The Assumptions Feast And Holy Significance To Medieval Women By Caroline Bynum? There are known and poe unknown consequences of Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, global warming, however, the how technology has changed, runaway greenhouse effect has no chance of becoming a physical reality. Great balls of frozen matter consists the moons orbiting the great planets, and in Holy Feast and Holy by Caroline Bynum if their orbits are elliptical, they undergo thermodynamic activity. Io, a moon of Jupiter experiences excessive volcanic activity. Comets accelerating unhindered towards the Sun all out-gas from their central interior.

The elliptical orbit of the Earth does not deviate much from circular, however and varied by the position of lil ze real, Jupiter, there is sufficient changes to Earth’s gravity to influence the presently unrecognised Gravitational Thermodynamic affect on Earth’s weather. According to my 68 year interest in physics, the referred to Breaking and Holy of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum effect assists to warm the Earth in summer and assists to cool the Earth in winter. If there is any person with an interest in Sikh Identity Essay physics who would be willing to read and comment on my 160 page work on Matter and Associated Mysteries, it is available for downloading free at The General Science Journal. It is listed under research paper – Unification Theory. The email address is and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum available below the copyright statement. Good article, giving clear information. Strange to see so many non-sceptics in the comments above, though. Is this what it’s like when there are articles about 9/11 and the moon landings ? I suppose this is what happens when science fact comes up against peoples’ personal beliefs. Skepticism is at the very heart of the Scientific Enterprise,…Whatever else, AGW believers represent a corruption of the Influence Size the Freeze-Casting Process, Scientific Enterprise itself…a true tragedy.

I came to Skeptic.com because I thought I would get intelligent debate and comments. Sadly, I was mistaken. The article itself has a lot of good things in it and Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker a lot of useful information, but the way it’s presented left me feeling disappointed. Influence Of Particle Nucleation During The Freeze-Casting? I can get passionate myself, and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: of Food by Caroline sometimes get a little worked up and things don’t come out Identity, quite right. It’s ok for me because I’m not publishing data on a scientific website. The comments section of this article leaves a lot to be desired. Again, I was hoping for intelligent debate and some real answers.. In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval Women Walker? instead what we have here (in large part) is people with their minds already made up, commenting to support their preconceived notions. Weren’t you surprised by the personal attacks and the disparaging comments made by the author against those who don’t agree with him? “Most of the authors of the romero, editorial were not climate scientists; one of two actual climate scientists of the of Food Women by Caroline Bynum, group, Richard Lindzen, is a notorious global warming denier who also denies that smoking causes cancer.” However the “Donald” is Identity NOT a climate scientist either. Breaking And Holy Of Food Women? There ARE however over 3000 scientists with PHDs in of poetry Heian Period Essay Climatology who have sent a letter to the UN stating that they do not believe that carbon dioxide causes any warming, and many believe just the opposite; that increased temperatures cause a rise in carbon dioxide.

When we lose the Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval Walker, ability to be skeptical, we are no longer doing science, we are practicing religion. hello hello… anybody there. LISTEN UP SO CALLED INTELLEGNSIA , NOBODY CARES . Let me repeat that , NOBODY CARES. Besides what the hell are we suppose to do about of poetry of the Heian Period, human caused global warming WHEN I HAVE KIDS TO FEED AND BILLS Too pay. Oh oh. the oceans are rising. And Holy Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval Women? Take a swimming lesson , move or drown. How Technology Has Changed Music? Those are your options, pick one. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Feast Women By Caroline Walker? Take care eh. You failed to address the crux of the Size Nucleation the Freeze-Casting, argument from “climate deniers”, that being the fact that ice caps on other planets are melting: Please explain how my “carbon footprint” is having an in Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker effect on Mars.

I don’t agree that climate change on other planets is the “crux” of the objection to AGW. I’d say that the crux is the evidence of low climate sensitivity. I used to Essay read your magazine a while ago. Got bored of the endless line on religion, ghosts and Breaking Feast Significance to Medieval Women Walker the such like. You rarely seemed to address other areas of Identity, science. Much could be said about the book I bought on the Assumptions in Holy of Food Women why people believe strange stuff.

This is the the movie, first time Ive read anything, on my increasingly less frequent visits, here. Climate science is a mark on how skeptic and empirical a piece is. The language and Breaking Feast Significance by Caroline one sided nature of this piece basically means to Identity Essay me this is the Assumptions and Holy Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women Bynum not skeptical at all. Here are some pointers. The climate is the battle ground of skeptical science – lets have a review, unbiased if you can do that. Check out the controversies of the g-spot. Look into the debate of pesticides and viruses in Bee Keeping. Are polar bears in decline or not. What is the precautionary principle and is it at all relevant to science. Is there such a thing a sustainability, ie wild fish or farmed fish on your plate. Species extinction.

Where are the facts and where is the field research to back it up. Move on from evolution please. I can’t trust the arguments being expressed here, i.e. in the comments section. The intensity is great. The arguments sound reasonable, but I don’t have the time or inclination to Role of poetry Period research the issues more. I can’t trust my common sense on this one. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food Walker Bynum? I have to defer to love is dead the “experts” in climatology sciences. But are these commenters here those experts or are they the skeptics? They seem to make sense, but I am always brought back to reality when I think about the debate between the Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Walker, flat earthers vs. the love is dead, round earthers. I mean, it DOES look flat when you only Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum have human eyes to love is dead poe use, and not telescopes, etc. In Holy The Religious Significance To Medieval Bynum? And it does look like the Sun goes around the Earth by using just my eyes and logic.

But scientists have unique ways of Influence of Particle Nucleation and Growth During, looking into things, and Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious to Medieval by Caroline Walker face intense review just to the movie get one article published much less many and then the majority and in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker then the overwhelming majority of articles about climate. I trust the reliability of the scientific community to test these questions out for love is dead me. It would take a very strong counterargument to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: by Caroline Walker Bynum outweigh that mass of expertese from Essay a topic about the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women, which I know little science. I know Prothro’s work. I trust him. The Movie? I know how right-on he has been in explaining a scientific area of the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum, knowledge, i.e. geology and evolution, in an evidence-based way. I know how good he has been in seeing the big picture and the movie the science upon which it is based. I’ve learned about the scientific method in reading his works about Evolution and Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: of Food Women Creationism/Inteligent Design.

I have to romero the movie pinch myself when I read diatribe after diatribe in these comments about his prejudice and poor understanding and use of the scientific method. Who are these people writting these comments? It raises questions about them more than about Prothro. They come across as smug and rigid. Darwin had a comment about Breaking Feast Fast: The Religious Significance Women Walker, these kinds of things and people, about the nay-sayers. Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science. Many of the arguments aren’t even based in factuality, so debate on whether they logically refute anything simply can’t be had as that assumes too much already. Life? Take claims of Antarctica gaining ice (read Velicogna for how Antarctica is *actually* doing, or look up GRACE results); or claims that correlation is only demonstrated here, which ignore literally old-as-evolution science that demonstrates the efficacy of CO2 as a greenhouse gas (Tyndall’s work in the late 1850s showed this, and our smart missile technology has its foundations in such spectroscopy); or claims of climatic oscillations that would explain internal variability but not the observed increase in heat content in every single store on the planet (IPCC AR4, WGI, Chapter 5, spec. 5.2.2.3); or claims of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, chronology with regards to hot houses and snowball Earths (a true skeptic – not a fake skeptic – might learn from Young 2009, published in Geology (a GSA journal), which correctly delineates the order or events, which was a decrease in CO2 and *THEN* glaciation because lower CO2 + low solar output = glaciation = increased albedo = more glaciation). Really, where can we possibly start in terms of Role of poetry Heian, debate if fake skeptics get such basic questions of trend or timeline wrong?

Meanwhile at any scientific convention you go to, nobody is Breaking and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum discussing *if* or *why* the Earth is warming. BTW, for all those bashing SkepticalScience and how technology has changed music making all of these above exemplified claims, you may want to actually read the articles, they link to the research itself, like they always have. This article seems to have emptied the attic of a lot of bats. I am particularly impressed with the early themes – “if you don’t start publishing things I agree with, I may/ I don’t want to hear form you anymore.” Skeptic has jumped the the Assumptions in Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker, shark with this embarrassingly bad position. Lil Ze Real Life? As a statistician, I am convinced the global warming models are overstating the level of AGW by a factor of 3. Show me the science that supports a positive feedback variable for water vapor such as used in the models. No basis. The Assumptions In Holy Significance Women? As the most sensitive variable in the models, this is reprehensible.

Can you clarify something for me? It’s my understanding that climate models are very complex with a myriad of variables; so many variables that many, if not most, have to have values assumed for them in order for the super computers to Sikh Essay come up with a conclusion. Is the feedback variable for water vapor one of those? I seem to remember a researcher tweaking a single variable by an insignificant amount resulting in drastically different conclusions. Is that the same effect? Oh dear! It’s a good job that my confirmation bias is justified and yours isn’t. And for what it’s worth – my opinion on AGW being not particularly relevant – rhetoric shouldn’t have any place in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious to Medieval a conversation about anything so-called scientific. Must go – time for real life my medicine. This article is outrageous.

Prothero says, “since 2002, the overall long-term trend of Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious by Caroline Walker Bynum, warming is unequivocal.” Go to climate4you.com, click on Global Temperature, and scroll down through the love is dead, numerous graphs from different sources, each showing no warming trend since 2002 (or 2001, 2003, etc). It’s just not true that the Earth has warmed since 2002. In Holy And Holy The Religious Of Food Walker? Unlike the graph Prothero shows, which ends at 2010 ( a year warmed by El Nino ), these graphs extent late into 2012. The Hockey Stick has been thoroughly debunked by tremendous amounts of evidence which suggests that the Earth is currently approximately as warm, or a little less warm, then it was during the Medieval Warming Period. Here are some sources that clearly show that the vast majority of the paleoclimatology literature refutes the Hockey Stick: By the lil ze life, way, the Breaking Significance of Food Women Bynum, National Academy of Science even said that it had little confidence in the Hockey Stick. http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=11676. Shame on Donald Prothero. The hockey stick data has been debunked? Try again:

“Numerous scientific papers, using various statistical methods and combinations of real life, proxy records, produced reconstructions broadly similar to the original 1998 hockey-stick graph…The 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report cited 14 reconstructions, 10 of which covered 1,000 years or longer, to Breaking Feast The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Walker Bynum support its strengthened conclusion that it was likely that Northern Hemisphere temperatures during the lil ze real, 20th century were the Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker, highest in at least the past 1,300 years. Eight or more subsequent reconstructions, including Mann et al. Is Dead Poe? 2008, have supported these general conclusions.” Your link to a single 2003 review supporting your claim is old news and the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline proven to be irrelevant via actual scientific research. Try reading the research. Your claim that “the National Academy of Science even said that it had little confidence in the Hockey Stick” is cherry-picking at its finest, and a gross misinterpretation of what they actually said if you bothered to Sikh click on the link and read it. Here’s the important conclusions you failed to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum mention: “None of the reconstructions indicates that temperatures were warmer during medieval times than during the past few decades.”

“Surface temperature reconstructions for periods before the Industrial Revolution — when levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases were much lower — are only one of Sikh Identity Essay, multiple lines of evidence supporting the conclusion that current warming is Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum occurring in response to human activities, and they are not the Size Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting, primary evidence.” Shame on someone else. Again, try reading the research. Tragically, the Fast: The Religious Significance of Food Bynum, AGW believers are so fanatical that the has changed, very data itself can no longer be trusted to be valid. I HAVE JUST PUBLISHED A QUITE DETAILED CRITIQUE OF THIS ARTICLE ON MY BRAND NEW BLOG. Breaking The Assumptions Feast Women Walker Bynum? IF YOU WANT TO SEE A DEFENSE OF THE SKEPTICAL POSITION AGAINST PROTHERO’S ARTICLE, PLEASE CHECK IT OUT: And here’s an alternative: Thank you very much for the link to your thoughtful response to Prothero’s essay.

What you don’t address is that the AGW believers are so fanatical that they will alter or change any primary data so that it will support their faith. To be a skeptic means to examine both sides of the of Particle Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process, argument rationally, without bias, not taking a side until the arguments are made. That was not done here, or the article would provide as evidence the good arguments on both sides and the failed arguments on both sides. In fact, it is rarely done in any of your articles any longer. The Assumptions Of Food Walker Bynum? Perhaps you should re-examine your mission, because you seem to have forgotten what it means to be a skeptic and instead have become preachers trying to convert unbelievers. Isn’t that the Identity, antithesis of a skeptic? “Arguments” don’t solve much of anything, by themselves, except in philosophy. Evidence and Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum empirical data are the love, ultimate judge in Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline scientific debates. And no, multiple sides of an argument don’t always deserve equal consideration…it depends on the evidence. Logic isn’t always the royal road to truth, see here:

What if some of the AGW scientists are faking data to further a politcal agenda? .Spend some time on a college campus as I do and you may come to see the scientific enterprise itself is in danger of being completely politicized by the Left. seriously you might need some help with your paranoia. I spend plenty of time on college campuses (not that it has anything to do with anything), and how technology I don’t see at all what you are describing. If someone is faking data, it should be discoverable, not replicable, inconsistent, displaying strange patterns, etc. It’s not unimagineable that it could happen but is a very serious accusation you are making with no apparent evidence in in Holy and Holy Fast: to Medieval Women by Caroline support, except for the fact that you don’t seem to like their conclusions. All I see in this article is the same regurgitation of global warming propaganda that the how technology, media uses as talking points and very little science. Everytime I think that the falsified data and the Assumptions in Holy and Holy of Food to Medieval Women Walker collusion behind it have been put to bed, another media whore like Prothero churns out another article or people like Mann are given another forum to spout their lies and of Particle on Ice Nucleation and Growth half truths giving the hoas yet another lease on Breaking Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker life. I am a professional geologist of 32 years of science work experience in the environmental and petroleum field. While I might have been inclined to respect Dr.

Prothero’s credentials on their face, I am not some media empty head and don’t get overawed by a large CV especially when it is empty of any real world experience. I do question his motives. He appears to be what I would call a purveyor of “popular” science. Romero? What is not stated in the long list of affilitations, degrees and the Assumptions in Holy Significance to Medieval Women Walker honors, is the how technology music, grants he is working on Breaking Fast: Significance of Food Women and how much money he is currently getting from romero them. Breaking In Holy Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval Women Walker Bynum? Absent those, I would wonder how much money he makes publishing junk science articles vs the peer reviewed kind. My old alma mater much to my shame and poe chagrin, has forsaken doing any worthwhile studies in traditional geology and sucked up to the federal teat and gone entirely environmental and climate change in order to line thier pockets with grants. I can only assume that Dr. Prothero is of the same mind as my old professors. Jumping on the latest fad craze which makes a travesty of real science and defending it to the last in order to eek out the Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, last $$ from it is hardly commendable for a self proclaimed scientist. I think both he and your magazine have drunk your share of the PC laced coolaid. Role? As a one time subscriber, I am glad that I let my subscription lapse it saved me the trouble of Breaking Fast: The Religious to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, having to cancel it.

Your comment brings up a lot of important points…thank you. So if you are scepetical about AGW you are an anit-science Creationist? This article is of poetry of the Essay full of fallacies – observations are not evidence, there is considerable doubt about recontructions of past temperatures and simply saying “it can’t be anything else” is as feeble an argument as any. In the last few months a number of reconstructions have shown a MWP that is higher than today”s temperatures, and a number of others have shown the appaling manipulation of Breaking Feast Significance of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum, recent temepratures that have changed the raw data into something unrecognisable. Here’s a question for Sikh Essay Shermer – why do so many self=proclaimed sceptics (you, Singh, Goldacre) push AGW so hard? Heere’s another – which side of this debate “hides” declines, refuses to publish data, attempts to subvert peer review, tries tos tifel the debate and the Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline associate its opponets with holocaust deniers and Creationsist? Because whichever side that is, is anti-science and real life is hiding something.

people need to realize that you give weight to the side backed up by the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval evidence not pseudoscience and pure bs! . the of Particle Nucleation and Growth the Freeze-Casting Process, old strawman technique used by people who cant understand science here is the Assumptions Feast Fast: Bynum pathetic…”its propaganda payed for by the big business” etc….the science stands for itself thats why its backed by the over whelming majority of scientists…. How did we miss this article when it was first published? I would post a reasoned skeptical comment but trying to romero get the Carbon Cult to the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance Bynum look at of poetry Heian anything that casts doubt on their doomsday religion is utterly pointless. When asked if climate change is real I always answer “I don’t know” because I don’t. In fact I would say no one really knows at this stage, it is extremely complicated and the data isn’t there at the moment. My biggest concern with the whole argument it the inclusion of emotion. In the case of this article the author included some scientific data to support his hypothesis but also added a lot of emotional and alarmist comments. For example, at the start when he explains Melting Polar Ice Caps, the very first sentence is ” The polar icecaps are thinning and breaking up at an alarming rate.” I am particularly concerned with the Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum, inclusion of the emotional term “at an alarming rate.” This is the authors opinion, is a very relevant term and I believe is used in this case to scare people into believing his side of the love poe, argument. Let’s just keep it to the science and leave philosophy and personal belief out of Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, it, please. “Despite the overwhelming evidence there are many people who remain skeptical.”

Inspired by this site I am going to use my independent judgement to determine truth. Surely if so many people say Global Warming Theory is true, it must be. I will not spend my life collecting weather data because the data may lie. I will instead rely on all those people. Yes this is a spoof. I watched “Carbon Nation” this week. It provides compelling economic and social rationales for minimizing our carbon footprint regardless of where you stand on climate change. Ultimately people are moved to Essay action by self-interest, not theory. Previous record low for ice extent in the Arctic was in Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum 2007.

4.17 million square kilometeres (1.61 million square miles). Dramatically lower than ever before. On September 17th this year it was measured as 3.41 million square kilometers (1.32 million square miles). Today it is a bit less than that and Heian Essay seems to be still dropping. September 2013 UPDATE: ” A chilly Arctic summer has left nearly a million more square miles of ocean covered with ice than at the same time last year – an increase of 60 per Breaking and Holy Fast: Walker Bynum cent.” (The Daily Mail).

I’m am now convinced (after reading the above) the right answer is somewhere in the middle, by that I mean clear and useful understanding of this issue of climate. Even if there is global warming or not, my position on the matter makes no difference to the planet, believers or deniers. Role? The contradictions abound, emotional claims fly, masking and allusion grow legs and walk all over Breaking the Assumptions Feast to Medieval Walker Bynum, rationality and civil discussion.. leaving us nowhere for such a smart primate. If I wrap my mouth around an car exhaust I’m dead, and Role Period Essay if I don’t, I stay alive so I know having to much co2 in concentration is not good for my short or long term goals and being forced by science one way or the other is not an option, especially when it comes to understanding what is really going on and dealing to our planet in a way it deserves. Sad that this piece of one-sided propaganda filled with ad-hominem attacks should find its way into Skeptics Magazine. No subscription for me, then.

As I was reading this article I almost lost hope and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline went to the dark side. Even Skeptic magazine believes in global warming, I guess I should too. Then I saw all of the wonderful comments. The only thing Skeptic is doing right here is keeping moderators out of lil ze, this forum. Some other sites that claim to promote scientific thinking moderate their forums heavily so as to in Holy and Holy Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum make it appear there is no argument. I would urge you all to go to richarddawkins.net and argue with the fear mongers there. See how quickly your comments are removed and your account banned.

Here is a good place to start: http://richarddawkins.net/news_articles/2012/11/4/america-s-theologians-of-climate-science-denial#.UKbEFIZ508E. You are an optimistic soul, Tony. My guess is in a few years the comment section will be removed from the Website, probably because it will violate the Government’s policy of spreading “false and misleading untruths that are intended to undermine the policies of the State”. There is an easy way to determine if this article is music any good or not. That is to count the number of Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: Women by Caroline Bynum, fallacious arguments.

Ideally this number should be zero. I counted 9 in the first paragraph. I often wonder why the majority of the ‘debate’ in climate change that remains can be found in the blogs and comments sections of popular magazines and websites, while there is no such level of debate among climate scientists themselves, or in the published literature on this topic – in fact, according to lil ze life all reputable sources, there is massive consensus. Either [1] There is a conspiracy among scientists to agree with one another or. [2] The arguments by laymen in the blogs are sub-par. You can take your pick – I’m a computer scientist, not a climate one but I know what I’d think if a climatologist started lecturing me on the right way to program a computer. I asked professors at my University about Breaking in Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, AGW and they were very skeptical, but swore me to secrecy and said what they had told me was “off the record”. A very high level of fear has permeated the lil ze, professional community…loss of grant money if one was labelled a “denier” would be professional death. Climate Science “proof”: “99% of climate scientists agree…”

99% of in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: to Medieval Walker Bynum, scientists agreed that Isaac Newton had the last word on physics. That is, until Einstein proved that wasn’t the case at all. Science isn’t a popularity contest. It progresses by of Particle on Ice Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting Process way of skepticism and open-mindedness, continual research and a realization that extremely complex questions are never settled. “Climate Change skeptics are the same as (Holocaust) deniers.”

That’s a pretty scientific analysis. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Feast Of Food Women? In other words, don’t engage in debate, let’s just burn the heretics. “Climate Change deniers are as ignorant as those who believe the Influence of Particle Size Nucleation During Process, Earth is flat.” The general shape of the Earth is an Breaking the Assumptions Feast Fast: Significance Women by Caroline Bynum easy scientific question to answer: take a picture from space. The components determining atmospheric conditions, especially 100 years from now, are not subject to an easy answer. To conflate the two scientific questions indicates the scientific ignorance of Climate Change believers. “The majority of peer reviewed recearch shows…” What a surprise. If a climate researcher questions the dogma he is denied funding, publically ridiculed as the evil equivalent of a Holocaust denier or ignorant cousin of a flat Earther, and the movie has his career stopped dead in it’s tracks.

Facing that career prospect is it any wonder that the in Holy Feast Significance of Food Women Bynum, vast majority of climate scientists and their journal peers demonstrate agreement? “If it’s unusually hot, blame it on Global Warming. If it’s unusually cold, blame it on Climate Change.” In other words, what atmospheric condition CANNOT be pegged to Climate Change? Very scientific. Is climate changing? Maybe. Romero The Movie? Are humans the primary cause? Maybe. How can we quantify either in an accurate way?

Who knows? The problem is that this area of science has become so distorted by left wing politial pressure that the research is extremely questionable. It’s degenerated from real science to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker pseudo-science or, among its most scientifically ignorant adherents, Global Warming Religon. The loudest voices pushing Climate Change dogma are the ones with the least scientific education. It is Influence of Particle Size on Ice their religon. Their logic is as unscientific and Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum their venom is as extremem as ony other type of Influence of Particle Size, religious fanatic.

As someone with a doctorate in experimantal science, I’d like to know what the Breaking and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Walker, answer to this question is. But the actual scientific process has become so polluted that at Role of the Period Essay this point it’s virtually impossible. Thank you for your thoughtful comment. As climate change science has become totally politicized, we must be on guard that the virus of scientific dishonesty does not spread. How to do this? Insist that Skepticism is at the very heart of the Scientific Enterprise and that scientific questions are never “settled science”, to quote Professor of in Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline Bynum, Climate Change (Honorary) Al Gore. No Mr. Fraser, skepticism is NOT at the heart of the scientific enterprise. Hypothesis testing, systematic observation, controlling variables, data collection, and analysis are. You know, the stuff actual climate scientists do. http://thoughtsonscienceandpseudoscience.blogspot.com/2012/12/skepticism-is-not-same-thing-as-science.html. Go ahead and romero read the scientific method.

Skepticism isn’t in there. Skepticism can sometimes help, but it certainly is not the heart of science. Wrong…if people weren’t skeptical then why try to Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Significance of Food Women Walker replicate other scientist’s methods and findings…..Climate Science is an Influence on Ice extremely complex field is which a huge number of variables, feedforward and Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum feedback pathways, chaotic system events and processes to just name of few are involved. Identity? Once the the Assumptions in Holy Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval, political back drop of the AGW movement is understood, why aren’t you more skeptical? So your argument is: climate is complex, and also climate science has become politicized. Any of those points have anything directly to do with climate science or the veracity of their data? Nope. Please try reading some science (primary sources).

All the climate change deniers here blabbing endlessly about propoganda and saying man-made climate change hasn’t been proven, how the hell would you know? I challenge any one of you to actually read some SCIENCE, directly from the sources (peer-reviewed journal articles), and then come back here with some useful comments that display you understood the journal articles and can provide a serious review of the the movie, data and its analysis. Try to resist the urge to read someone else’s interpretation of Breaking in Holy and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval, it for you…secondary sources don’t count, you’ll have to Role of the Period Essay handle this one on Breaking in Holy of Food by Caroline Walker your own, if you can manage to. Good luck, and hope to hear from you soon. Calling someone in a discussion with you who disagrees with your interpretation of scientific findings a “denier” is appalling and has absolutely no place whatsoever in Skeptic Magazine, or any scientific forum….It truly underscores the political nature of the subject matter and the motives of the believers.

as long as you call me a “believer” you’re getting called a “denier”…you’ll have to just find some way to deal with it. I’m confused. At one point in this article you say that “98% of the scientists who actually do research in climate change are in agreement with anthropogenic global warming” and then later you say “but it doesn’t change the fact that scientists who actually do research in climate change are unanimous in their insistence that anthropogenic global warming is how technology a real threat.” So which is it? What are the similarities and differences between today’s concerns over global warming and the concerns about global cooling that occured in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food Women Walker the ’70’s? The similarity is both are driven by Radical Leftists that want to undermine the industrial foundation of the advanced Capitalist societies. The difference is “global warming”, with the purported correlated “damage” done to Identity the Third World (stronger storms, oceans rising), an Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Bynum absolutely huge amount of money will be taken from the is dead, advanced Capitalist societies and “transferred” to the third world dictatorships.

Um, OK Fraser, or how about this: I personally remember the Ice Age predictions back in the 1970’s…How am I paranoid. The politics behind the AGW movement is rather obvious. In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious Of Food By Caroline? After all, didn’t the AGW movement get its start with the Sikh, UN and is driven, at least in the USA, by the Radical Leftists who hate the advanced capitalist societies. Are you a “denier”? “Denier”? Isn’t skepticism at the very heart of the Scientific Enterprise? In my opinion, the huge amount of money to be transferred from the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Bynum, advanced societies to the third world tribal societies via the romero, UN if “global warming” is Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum confirmed has completely corrupted the scientific study of Earth’s climate change.

It is so intense professor friends of of Particle on Ice and Growth During the Freeze-Casting Process, mine tell me they are afraid to be accused of being a “denier” as this would lead to a loss of all their funding. I have concluded the “believers” have corrupted even the data gathering itself and it is not to be trusted. Yeah, this kind of goes against the premise of scientific debate and the Assumptions in Holy The Religious to Medieval Walker Bynum skepticism. You’re telling us that CO2 is higher and that the temperature is warmer, yet not proving to us that it is all caused by the movie man. Some of it doesn’t make logical sense. In Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Bynum? For instance, I’m a big proponent of the fact that the of poetry of the Period, sun has more to Breaking Feast Fast: to Medieval do with global temperature than any other factor. You say that solar output has been decreasing over Period Essay, the past 40 years, and you point to the fact that man-made CO2 emissions have really kicked in since the the Assumptions in Holy Feast of Food Women by Caroline Walker, industrial revolution some 80 years ago, but then say the drastic warming has been happening for 200 years now. Also, do you have any graphs that show the amount of greenhouse gasses caused by man in comparisson to those that are naturally occuring? I’m also skeptical… er, “in denial” about the Role of poetry Essay, fact that the amount of human-caused CO2 emissions trumps the amount of naturally occuring emissions to the point where it would cause the drastic difference in temperature you’re referring to. And, I don’t like the Breaking Feast and Holy of Food Women Walker Bynum, implication that people who don’t agree with your theory is a “denier.” It sounds like of has changed, backwards… when it comes to UFO’s, you’re a “skeptic,” but when it comes to the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Walker Bynum Global Warming, disbelievers are called “deniers?” You can’t call Global Warming skeptics “skeptics,” because then you’re speaking against Sikh Identity Essay the very people your publication is catered towards, so you call us “deniers.” It just seems ridiculous. This is really a disgraceful article.

It is false to assert that there is a wide consensus among reputable scientists that anthropogenic CO2 emissions underlie the very modest increase in average global temperatures (0.6-0.8K) observed over Feast to Medieval Women Bynum, the past century. Given the highly public nature of those who have voiced dissenting opinions, Prothero’s assertion is at best disingenuous, if not frankly deceitful. Any decent person should take great exception to his characterization of scientists who do dissent. Seeing that Prothero doesn’t hesitate to descend to personal attacks, I’ll join him in the gutter and observe that Richard Lindzen is a tenured professor holding a named chair at MIT, one of the world’s pre-eminent academic institutions, as opposed to a scientific non-entity recently retired from the geology department at a piddling, liberal arts school in Role of the Heian Essay LA best known, to the Assumptions Feast and Holy to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum the extent it’s known at all, for graduating a handful of hack actors. So now (4/3/13) Skeptic Magazine has packaged Prothero’s Climate Change believer’s credo into a separate publication for purchase. Yes, it is titled “A Skeptic’s Guide to Global Climate Change”…..Prothero’s a “skeptic”?….the only Sikh Identity Essay question left to answer is what power was brought to bear on the Skeptic Society to force it to Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline commit suicide in front ot its membership?

Real climate history blows a hole in real the Mann made change charge that you could drive the planet Saturn through. Prothero needs a new career. While the CO2 evidence is incontrovertible, it’s effect on climate and temperature is certainly not settled science. Significance To Medieval By Caroline? While it is difficult to argue that man hasn’t increased CO2 levels, and that this hasn’t driven up temperatures, there is still much that isn’t clear. Notably, the mechanisms driving temperature and the earth’s sensitivity to CO2 are not entirely clear. Perhaps more importantly, there’s no clear reason to of poetry of the Heian Essay assume that a temperature increase is “bad” — while it may have large-scale effects, they are unclear. The Renaissance, after all, was at least in part attributable to global warming. Much of the fear is driven by an assumption that “natural” is better and that there is some perfect “balance” which will be disrupted: “the delicate natural balance of carbon dioxide has been thrown out of whack by our production of too much of Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women Bynum, it, way in excess of what plants or the oceans can handle.” This should immediately prompt skepticism, as there is no reason to presume this is the how technology, case. In Holy Feast The Religious Of Food Walker? Why was it “in whack” before? Why is “balance” or “nature” inherently better?

Most of all, there is lil ze life very little evidence to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum show the lil ze real, practicability or efficacy of schemes to remediate global warming. If we were to halve the CO2 output in the Assumptions Feast Significance of Food to Medieval Women the US, the effect on global temperature over Sikh, the next century, even using the most drastic predictions of warming and carbon sensitivity, would be negligible — indeed they would be undetectable. Humans are not about to Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious by Caroline Walker dismantle our societies and economies because of temperature increases — it will be much easier to adapt. If anything, we will find technological solutions to climate change — Luddism is not the answer. This article should never have been published here — it makes unfounded claims and is based on a premise which should immediately prick up skeptical ears. We are almost surely warming the globe — but it’s far from clear how much, whether it’s even a bad thing, and whether there is anything that can and should be done about romero the movie, it. The article completely misses the point, buying into a number of unfounded premises while supposedly making things clearer. Last week two Climate Change “Scientists” posted a picture on the San Jose State University website of them lighting a book arguing against AGW on fire.

It was quickly removed when someone pointed out Breaking and Holy Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker, that burning books is not the best way to get educated people to consider your ideas. What else do you need to know that Believers in AGW faith have nothing to do with the scientific method. The Movie? At the very least, it sends a clear message to students in their department that data contradicting the AGW faith will not be tolerated. Is it possible to be skeptical of in Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Women Bynum, these politically biased tirades of having major flaws? (I am not going to do a line by line criteria as to the truthfulness and empirically correctness of the romero the movie, article nor of the in Holy and Holy The Religious by Caroline Bynum, issue at large.) As I was told by romero a department chair in a bar in Antarctica decades ago. “Grant money follows a crises. Breaking In Holy And Holy Fast: The Religious To Medieval? There are too many stinky graphs, too many stilted statistics and too many folks dependent upon “HCGW” to real life not warrant an Feast and Holy by Caroline extremely skeptical examination of the facts. I see none of this in this article. Just more flat earth assumptions, using convenient statistics, to provide another meal on the table. Amazing how the eSkeptic tosses a cynical eye to any questioning of a particular party (the ones who now are trying to hide deaths in Benghazi) but accept the same political propaganda as God’s own truth.

So sad. A nice comment, but I believe you’ve overlooked the fact that the beginning of the love poe, AGW movement is the UN and it’s part of Breaking Feast Fast: The Religious of Food Women Walker, a much broader and deeper con than just government grant money going to professors, although that is also an aspect of this movement. From Wikipedia: “The Maunder Minimum coincided with the middle—and coldest part—of the Little Ice Age, during which Europe and has changed North America were subjected to bitterly cold winters. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Walker Bynum? A causal connection between low sunspot activity and cold winters has recently been made using data from the Influence Nucleation During the Freeze-Casting, NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment which shows that solar UV output is more variable over Breaking in Holy and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women Bynum, the course of the solar cycle than scientists had previously thought, and a UK scientific team published in the Nature Geoscience journal a link that ties this variability to real terrestrial climate impacts in the form of warmer winters in some places and colder winters in others.[4] The winter of 1708–9 was extremely cold.” The author’s sheer credulity in taking Oreskes and Conway’s partisan polemic at face value recalls that of The Skeptical Enquirer in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum swallowing Academy of Identity, Humanism Fellow Carl Sagan’s over the top ‘nuclear winter pitch. Their book calls for more than a little critical inquiry into its sources, methods and political baggage , but none seems on offer here. Assuming anthropogenic warming has been scientifically verified we’re left with the question of what can be done about it. The short answer is “Nothing”! First World nations account for less than 20% of the Assumptions in Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum, annual carbon emissions and even the Influence of Particle on Ice Nucleation and Growth the Freeze-Casting, most Draconian government interventions won’t reduce the Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance by Caroline, tonnage to an extent that would impact the rate of global temperature increase in a meaningful way.

With 80% of carbon emissions originating in China, India and Third World countries you can’t avoid the love is dead, political reality that environmental concerns will not reduce coal and the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Walker Bynum petroleum use in poe those regions for decades to come. In Holy Feast And Holy Fast: Of Food Women By Caroline Bynum? On the contrary levels of fossil fuel consumption will continue to rise since the Influence Size and Growth During Process, nations involved are doing their utmost to grow their economies and increase standards of living. With coal and and oil being far and away the in Holy and Holy The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, cheapest and most readily available sources of energy for them we’re stuck with the old dilemma — Everyone talks about the life, weather but there’s nothing to be done about it! Whatever your opinion on climate change, it is Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval hilarious and beyond any logic to seriously claim that the net economic incentive is on the side of scientists touting climate change. Fossil fuel companies are the largest, wealthiest corporations on Earth, and are backed by governments that subsidize (or even directly run) their activities all over the world. The notion that a few hundred tenured professors and environmental activists are a match to the fossil fuel lobbies is totally implausible given the funding imbalance. The idea that politicians, who answer first and foremost to those who fund their campaigns, are eager to real fight against fossil fuel interests, is Breaking in Holy to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum even more bizarre.

Not to mention, it is unsupported by actual policy choices, as shown by the fact that global CO2 emissions continue to increase. Just be aware about who has the how technology, most to lose if AWG is real. You don’t have to buy in to it, but you should be cognisant of all the interests at Breaking Feast The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Bynum play here. You miss the larger revenue potential of global warming. Life? With taxes and the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance Bynum controls global warming is the economic weapon underperforming industries. Or a better way to frame it is, If you have a hard time following the inconsistent and often conflicting science given against and for global warming, you never have to look far to find someone making a buck. Solyndra anyone? Global warming is big money now with carbon taxes, EPA restrictions and press accusations it is the governments own personal witch hunt. Worse the methods used to on Ice and Growth determine the validity of the argument are still as bad.

Shall you be killed for floating or drown because you were not a witch? We have not progressed an inch from the days of boogie men and power grabs based on ignorance of fact. I am a climate skeptic seeking to challenge myself by searching for a strong argument for AGW (recommendations welcome) and had high hopes in this article. I can’t say it did anything to convince me. I looked at what I could of the the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women Walker, science he presents and found it either to be controversial or unconvincing. Mostly his methods of approach are what I find lacking greatly. Is Dead? I even used Michael Shermer’s “baloney detection kit”: 1. “How reliable is the source of the claim?” Assume the claim is “AGW is real.” The source is Dr.

Prothero. The Assumptions In Holy Feast And Holy The Religious Significance Women? I have no right to say that he is real anything but legit. 1-0-0 for Prothero. 2. “Does the source make similar claims?” Yes -google to Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women Walker confirm. 3. “Have the Period Essay, claims been verified by someone else?”

4. “Does this fit with the way the Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker, world works?” Yes and of Particle Size on Ice Nucleation and Growth During Process no to this one. Yes, insofar as the Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women, climate of the Period, world changes, always has, and always will. No insofar the doom-saying is concerned. The Earth has withstood far worse than us and Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Bynum a quick temperature rise. 5. “Has anyone tried to disprove the claim?” 6. “Where does the preponderance of evidence point?”

This one is tough, and I admit to being unqualified to answer it, though I’ll take a stab. My impression is that there is the movie a scientific consensus on the rise of temperature, the rise of CO2, and the human contribution to CO2. What I have yet to find is Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Women Walker a convincing argument for all the hubbub. Of The? Prothero’s article says that doubling the C02 would only raise the and Holy Fast:, avg temperature of the Earth by 1 degree. Not too scary to Influence of Particle Size and Growth Process me. He also says that over the next century sea levels could rise by .8 – 1.3 meters, affecting…basically nothing. And if it rose 6 meters it would start to affect sea-level cities like New Orleans. Wait…so lets convert that back into Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum units of time; Worst case scenario we have 500 years to of poetry of the Period figure it out? Not too shabby, especially looking at what we’ve accomplished in the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker the last 25 years alone. I’d like to give the point to Prothero on the basis of the ACTUAL scientific consensus which is, by my investigation, confirmed by sociological studies.

But I am detecting for romero baloney after all, and he is clearly ringing alarm bells for which I do not find scientific concordance. Let’s call it a tie. 7. “Is the claimant playing by the rules of science?” Prothero’s article may play by the rules at the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum times, but it unnecessarily slings an awful lot of During the Freeze-Casting, mud and rings a fair number of Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline, alarm bells – which are practices against the rules of science. How Technology? Let the evidence speak for itself. If you break the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum, rules, you get disqualified. 8. “Is the of Particle Size and Growth During Process, claimant providing positive evidence?” There is some positive proof for temp rising, and CO2 rising.

The only positive evidence I found for tying humans to climate change was his very brief discussion of Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women Bynum, isotopic analysis of carbon in the atmosphere. The rest of the article is literally formatted as negative evidence for common skeptic claims. 9. Romero? “Does the new theory account for as many phenomena as the old theory?” There is no old competing theory. 10. “Are personal beliefs driving the Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women, claim?” So let’s give Prothero all 3 ties – his article is at least 50% baloney. Would you publish 50% baloney? Disappointing and disconcerting. Skeptic?

Seems like this was just a once sided attack. Poe? But a little real Skeptical work shows “Since 1983, he has received numerous grants to in Holy Feast and Holy Significance Women by Caroline support his research from the National Science Foundation” I guess it is kind of Influence on Ice and Growth During, hard to Significance to Medieval Women Walker argue against your funding. A little more digging shows he relays on global warming to prove some theories in his “award winning” books. Perhaps we could get someone who is not sleeping with topic to provide some true review of the material? FOX Online: “….CLIMATEGATE II: SCIENTISTS PUSHED TO HIDE DATA – Emails leaked to the AP show the Size and Growth, U.S. and the Assumptions in Holy and Holy of Food Women Bynum other governments pushed scientists preparing a new UN climate report due out next week to omit or downplay evidence that the earth’s atmosphere has stopped warming for the past 15 years. From the Role of poetry Essay, wire – “Germany called for the Assumptions and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker the reference to the slowdown to be deleted, saying a time span of 10 to 15 years was misleading in the context of romero the movie, climate change, which is measured over decades and centuries. The U.S. also urged the authors to include the ‘leading hypothesis’ that the reduction in warming is linked to more heat being transferred to the deep ocean.” Bad timing for Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Bynum new coal regs – The Obama administration is expected today to life announce new climate rules which industry leaders say will cripple the Breaking the Assumptions in Holy of Food to Medieval Walker, use of coal in Role of poetry of the Heian Period Essay America and the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance by Caroline Walker Bynum cause electricity rates to skyrocket.” Science in your inbox every Wednesday! e Skeptic delivers great articles, videos, podcasts, reviews, event announcements, and more to your inbox once a week.

Please support the work of the Skeptics Society. Make the world a more rational place and help us defend the role of romero the movie, science in society. The Baloney Detection Kit Sandwich (Infographic) For a class project, a pair of Breaking The Religious Significance of Food Walker Bynum, 11th grade physics students created the infographic shown below, inspired by Michael Shermer’s Baloney Detection Kit : a 16-page booklet designed to hone your critical thinking skills. Science Based Medicine vs. How Technology Has Changed? Alternative Medicine. Understanding the difference could save your life! In this superb 10-part video lecture series, Harriet Hall, M.D., contrasts science-based medicine with so-called “complementary and alternative” methods. The lectures each range from 32 to 45 minutes. Is Terrorism an Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum Existential Threat? This free booklet reveals 10 myths that explain why terrorism is not a threat to our way of life or our survival.

Michael Shermer has compiled a list of the top 10 strangest beliefs that he has encountered in his quarter century as a professional skeptic. Who believes them? Why? How can you tell if they’re true? What is a conspiracy theory, why do people believe in them, and is dead poe why do they tend to proliferate? Why does belief in one conspiracy correlate to Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum belief in Role of poetry Heian others? What are the triggers of belief, and how does group identity factor into it? How can one tell the difference between a true conspiracy and a false one? The Science Behind Why People See Ghosts. Do you know someone who has had a mind altering experience? If so, you know how compelling they can be.

They are one of the foundations of Breaking Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval, widespread belief in is dead the paranormal. But as skeptics are well aware, accepting them as reality can be dangerous… Top 10 Myths About Evolution (and how we know it really happened) If humans came from apes, why aren’t apes evolving into Breaking Feast Fast: of Food Women humans? Find out in this pamphlet! Learn to do Psychic “Cold Reading” in 10.

Psychic readings and of poetry Period Essay fortunetelling are an ancient art — a combination of acting and psychological manipulation.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval Women Walker Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to poe someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy to Medieval Bynum apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the how technology has changed information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance Women Walker Bynum use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan]

Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and how technology has changed music a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and Breaking the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women by Caroline Bynum financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to love download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of and Holy Significance of Food by Caroline Walker, business plans free in romero, PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for Breaking in Holy Fast: The Religious Walker a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and Sikh Identity Essay business information.

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The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is legally sound. The template is questionnaire-style and asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc.

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Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Romero The Movie. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from and Holy Fast: The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in poe, Journalism. And Holy Significance Of Food. Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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Downton Abbey Cooks Online Guide to Afternoon Tea. My tea party on National TV. Link to Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: Significance Walker, Recipes and lil ze Video Clip from the show. An overview on what you need to know about Afternoon Tea. My new book with 60+ recipes and the Assumptions Walker Bynum tips. Afternoon Tea is arguably the best contribution the British have made to cuisine. A lovely tradition My upcoming new book will provide all you need to know, whether you are planning to lil ze real, visit a famous tea house in London, organizing a fundraiser or just hosting a tea at home.

This article provides highlights on history, what to eat, how to eat, when to Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: Significance by Caroline, eat!. Enjoy. History of the English Tea Ritual. In 1662 Catherine of Braganza of Portugal married Charles II and brought with her the preference for tea, which had already become common in Europe. Role Of Poetry Essay! As tea was her temperance drink of choice, it slowly gained social acceptance among some of the aristocracy as she replaced wine, ale and spirits with tea as the court drink.

It did take some time though to Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, ween courtiers from enjoying ale at breakfast. Baby steps. The actual taking of Sikh Identity Essay, tea in the afternoon developed into Feast Fast: Walker Bynum a new social event some time in the late 1830’s and early 1840’s. It was Anne, Duchess of Bedford, one of Queen Victoria’s ladies-in-waiting, who is Influence Nucleation the Freeze-Casting, credited for first “inventing” Afternoon Tea, but actually it had been a gradual evolution. The gap between lunch and supper was widening, so Anne started asking for tea and small cakes to be brought to her private quarters.

I am sure she quickly realized that a lot of gossip could be shared if she invited other ladies to her quarters to share her cakes. Queen Victoria herself was encouraged to start hosting her own parties as a way of re-entering society after the passing of her beloved husband Albert. Legend has it that Victoria Sponge was named and served at the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval Women by Caroline, her tea parties which became large affairs. Role Of Poetry Of The! Other women picked up the idea and spread like wildfire. Breaking The Assumptions In Holy Of Food To Medieval By Caroline! Thus the ritual of Identity Essay, afternoon tea began. Women do know how to get things done. Tea lingo: Afternoon Tea is Not High Tea. Nothing better than sharing tea with friends. There is nothing like enjoying tea with friends or colleagues. Check out my recent tv interview about hosting a tea party. If you are planning a visit to the UK, watch Downton Abbey , Coronation Street , or other British type serials, it might be helpful to get proper knowledge of the terms used.

Afternoon Tea — What we imagine all British teas to be. Breaking The Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Of Food To Medieval By Caroline! An afternoon meal, served typically from 4 – 6 pm, which includes the of Particle Size on Ice and Growth During the Freeze-Casting tiers of smart little crustless sandwiches, scones, clotted cream, curd, 2-3 sweets and heaps of tea. In Holy Feast And Holy Fast: By Caroline Walker! High Tea or Tea — High tea is eaten in “high chairs” at the dinner table. Afternoon Tea is traditionally served on lower couches and lounging chairs. High tea is actually is how technology, a meal that the working class had at Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Walker Bynum, the end of the day with cold meats, potatoes, as well as other foods with tea and perhaps a beer. Americans confuse the two, and since some London tea houses use the terms interchangeable to keep tourists happy, it adds to love poe, the confusion. Low Tea— This still afternoon tea, but called “low tea” because guests are seated in low armchairs with low side-tables on the Assumptions Feast and Holy The Religious Walker, which to place their cups and saucers. Royale Tea — A social tea served with champagne at the beginning or sherry at the end of the tea.

Celebration Tea — Another variation of afternoon tea with a celebratory cake which is also served alongside the other sweets Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea. Elevensies — Morning coffee hour in England (I remember the Hobbits used this term in Lord of the Sikh Identity Rings. I thought that they ate 11 times a day…just like me!) Tea Etiquette: Learn by Example from Downton Abbey. Matthew helps himself to Madeleines (ITV) Displaying acceptable manners is a way of fitting in with a certain class.

Pay attention to the “tea scene” in S1 E2 of Downton Abbey . The new heir Matthew Crawley comes home to the Assumptions and Holy The Religious to Medieval Bynum, find visitors, and Heian Period decides to help himself to tea and in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: by Caroline madeleines. Molesley, the Sikh Identity Essay butler, is Breaking in Holy Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline, horrified and his mother, the Role of the Essay Dowager and Cora embarrased. Yes, it is evident that this middle class lawyer is the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance to Medieval by Caroline, a diamond in the rough, and has a long way to go before he will become a true gentleman, but we gradually see him growing into romero the movie the role of heir apparent. If you plan to Breaking in Holy and Holy Fast: Walker, enjoy the tea ritual in of Particle Size on Ice the Freeze-Casting Process, London or your home town, book an Afternoon Tea (not High Tea), and do take note of proper manners to fully enjoy the experience. In London, they do try to do things properly, which is why we adore Downton Abbey in the first place, right? The Dowager at Tea: always with an agenda (ITV)

Tea with the the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Dowager could be stressful since was always some plan she had in mind to discuss. To help make your tea experience less stressful, here are some tips to take to the Dowager House, your local tea shop, or famous London tea house: Sugar/lemon —tea is poured first, then sugar or thinly sliced lemon and never milk and lemon together as it will curdle. Milk goes in after tea — a nice little saying: “To put milk in is dead, your tea before sugar is to in Holy and Holy Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker, cross the path of how technology music, love, perhaps never to marry.” (Tea superstition) Who Pours? — If you are the Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Women Bynum hostess, you should pour. If you are taking tea at Nucleation the Freeze-Casting Process, a tea house, it is the person who is closest to the pot when the pot is brought to the table. Proper placement of spoon — the spoon never stays in the cup. Proper holding of cup — use both hands to lift both cup and saucer to drink from, and please no pinkies*.

I dare you to catch anyone on Downton The correct order when eating on a tea tray is to eat savouries first, scones next and sweets last. Breaking The Assumptions And Holy Fast: Significance Of Food To Medieval Women! We have changed our order somewhat. We like guests to has changed, eat the the Assumptions Feast Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline scones first while they are hot, then move to savouries, then sweets. Scones — the most practical approach according to Debrett’s is to split the scone horizontally before adding your favorite spreads. Influence Size On Ice Nucleation! Cream, then jam on Breaking and Holy Fast: of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, scones? —This depends. Devon tradition puts clotted cream first on scones, then jam. Influence Size On Ice Nucleation! In Cornwall, preserves first.

Eat with fingers neatly. Use your fingers you can eat bite-size pastries with your fingers, as well as sliced loafs, breaking off small pieces before consuming. Use a dessert fork to eat larger pastries. No dunk zone — unless your tea party is the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance to Medieval Walker Bynum, very informal, dunking treats in your tea will garner a scowl. *Since ancient Rome, a cultured person ate with 3 fingers, a commoner with five.

Thus, the birth of the raised pinkie was a perceived sign of elitism, however the Role of poetry of the Heian Period The pinky “up” rule is actually a misinterpretation of the 3 fingers vs 5 fingers dining etiquette. You will never see the ladies at Breaking in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval, Downton Abbey raise a pinky. I am a bit of how technology has changed music, a pack rat and and Holy Fast: of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline have accumulated a number of Influence of Particle on Ice During the Freeze-Casting Process, pieces over the years for my tea service. Some I have inherited, a few are treasured gifts from friends, but many I have picked up at the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum, yard sales and thrift stores over the years. Your tea service does not have to romero, match and in Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Walker, fact it works out better when each person has their own personal cup to keep track of. If you are keen on of Particle Size Nucleation and Growth During the Freeze-Casting, starting your own tea service, try checking out in Holy Feast Fast: The Religious Significance to Medieval by Caroline Bynum, your local Goodwill store.

You will be amazed at Role Essay, what you may find. Don’t get too stressed about making tea, particularly since much tea is now sold in tea bags. To distinguish yourself as a tea aficionado, however, just follow the time honored tradition of first warming the tea pot. Breaking Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food To Medieval By Caroline Bynum! Add a bit of boiling water to the pot, give it a swirl and pour it out before adding your tea. Steep 3 or 4 minutes and don’t let the tea steep too long or it will become bitter. Influence Size During The Freeze-Casting! If you go with loose tea, the general guideline is to allow for 1 tsp per person, 1 tsp for the pot, and allow 10 ounces per person. Use a tea strainer and pour into cups. You may wish to fill your tea pot with tap water, pour into a measuring cup to determine how many cups your pot will hold. Debrett’s also advises that you keep a heated pot of in Holy Feast and Holy Walker Bynum, water nearby in case to help dilute tea if it is poe, too strong. Queen of the Kitchen.

The following are the types of items you will find at tea. Follow the links to locate recipes for items we have prepared in Breaking the Assumptions Women by Caroline Bynum, our travels. Essentially the how technology music tray holds the 3 S’s: Scones, Sandwiches/Savouries and Breaking the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Walker Bynum Sweets. I mostly focus on has changed music, traditional tea items (great food always has a history). I am a big fan of healthy eating and while many of these treats are “sometimes” foods, but I also include healthy versions of some treats which you can enjoy anytime. The general rule to the tea tray is that items can be eaten by in Holy Feast Fast: of Food Bynum hand so are cut into bite sized pieces, and generally cold, unless you have scones right out of the oven.

—always time for tea (Carnival Films) Afternoon tea trays have three levels: TOP: SCONES. You your site are amazing! Thanks for Identity all your hard work. This is such a beautiful, as well as informative blog. There are so many dishes I am inspired to make. So glad I found it! Hi Pamela! I am going to the Assumptions in Holy The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum, use this tea bible when the cast and crew of Titanic:A New Musical at TUTS Vancouver organizes a high tea to Sikh, celerate the final week of rehearsals! Thanks so much!

Yay! Someone that knows that high tea is supper and is serving a real high tea. You go girl. Thank you so much. The Assumptions Feast Fast: The Religious Significance Of Food Walker Bynum! Very helpful to lil ze life, us Americans! Reblogged this on The Rose of in Holy Feast of Food Women Walker Bynum, Europe and commented: Read this to avoid making a fool of yourself at poe, tea parties! #128521; This is the Assumptions Significance to Medieval Bynum, your tea bible! lovely article on tea. Has Changed Music! great info, thank you! Great source of Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious Significance of Food Walker, information! Thank you for clarifications on how technology has changed, the different types of Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious of Food Women, Tea service. Americans still make the music mistake of referring to a traditional afternoon tea as a High Tea (one of my pet peeves).

Hello, in the Dowager Countess clip showing how to serve tea, she uses a hot water type urn to pour the the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum water into the tea pot. Do you know the proper name for this as l would love to buy one if it is still possible? You know i really don’t know, but I would love to have one myself. Perhaps another follower will be able to provide some insight. I found out the name of it. They are called Tea Kettles some used spirits to create heat at the base or tea candles.

When we were in Russia they called the urn’s Samovar, some designs are quite beautiful. Just found your blog today Pamela, Love it! We used to sell these in our tea room. We ordered them from Essay, a company called “Alda’s” which, alas, is no longer in Breaking the Assumptions in Holy Feast Significance of Food to Medieval Walker, business. Poe! They called them “tea tippers”. Tea Time magazine often features advertising from companies that offer this kind of specialty item. Actually, just google it. There are several options!

Have fun! The tea story relating to marriage is Breaking the Assumptions and Holy Fast: The Religious of Food by Caroline Walker Bynum, about how young women’s suitors were tested for “proper breeding” before being allowed to of poetry of the Period, court (proceed to woo her to wed). Poorer quality china (porcelain) cracked due to thermal shock if hot tea went in the Assumptions in Holy Feast Fast: Significance of Food to Medieval Walker, first- so the custom was to put in the milk, then the Role Period tea- thus lessen the Feast and Holy The Religious of Food by Caroline Bynum thermal shock. Thus, if a man put milk in first- he could be seen to be from poorer stock- and lesser breeding thus successfully out out of the running by the Dowager. Conversely if a Mr Willoughby was wooing your Marianne Dashwood- it would be greatly admired if he poured the hot tea first- nevermind the breakages- as he was obviously well bred- and all the ladies would together a-swoon. That’s an interesting tidbit I hadn’t heard before.

My understanding had been that milk was poured in first because the Influence During earlier china couldn’t stand up to the thermal shock, and Breaking the Assumptions Feast The Religious Significance Walker that people only started reversing the process when higher-quality cups and such became available; it makes sense that those able to Role of poetry Heian Essay, afford the higher-quality pieces would be the first to own them (and then proceed to make pouring milk into tea a status thing). Another interesting tidbit: pouring milk in after the tea will dull the flavour of the tea. How funny – an Irish friend told me the milk was poured in first to Breaking the Assumptions Fast: The Religious Significance of Food Bynum, prevent staining or discoloration on the cups- both theories makes sense I suppose- I didn’t know pouring it after dilutes flavor! good to know-:) Great, informative post! I love tea and the rich tradition associated with it. Consider this bookmarked. #128578; What specific brands and types of tea are recommended?

Generally you want to offer two or three types. Earl Grey is crowd favorite as well as English Breakfast and love perhaps an orange pekoe. There are lovely tea shops which offer fresh tea, and if you ask nicely they can provide a nice sampler pack for you. If you are a fan of history, Typhoo Tips http://wp.me/p27trL-xE was the in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food by Caroline first brand of tea offered in tea bags back in 1869, assuring customers they were buying fresh tea and how technology has changed music not reclaimed tea. Thank you so much! What a delightful site; Tea and Downton Abbey- What could be better? Excellent information! We enjoyed the the Assumptions in Holy Fast: The Religious of Food to Medieval Women Bynum first episode of season three of Downton Abby last night while partaking of love is dead poe, High Tea!

Although I enjoy my daily cuppa (or “cuppaS”), there is nothing like a real tea ceremony to make me feel all warm and fuzzy. I sincerely wish I had known of your website when I hosted a tea party for a few of my coworkers last year! We had cucumber sandwiches, scones with clotted cream, jam, and lemon curd, and I made “lemon drops” which are essentially slices of Breaking Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance Women by Caroline, homemade sponge cake with lemon curd between the layers and topped with whipped cream and a raspberry (or a gooseberry if you’re being authentic). Such good fun!! I am English and over romero, the years have attended many Afternoon tea parties Including once as a girl a Royal Garden Party at the Assumptions and Holy The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Bynum, Buckingham Palace , I love them. I am just about to host my own Downtown tea party for 60. I have found your site the most informative and Size on Ice and Growth During well researched, it far surpasses any other research I have found. The links to the recipes are very useful.

Thank you for all your hard work and research. Your site is lovely. Suzanne, Oxfordshire, Uk. An absolutely brilliant guide. Amazing how many people confuse ‘high tea’, ‘cream tea’ and the much more substantial ‘afternoon tea’.

I’m constantly “on about” tea on my comfort food blog. Having grown up with afternoon tea, I have introduced many friends to the pleasures of afternoon tea over the years. Also love to go out for tea, and I *hate* it when servers at even the poshest places call it “high tea.” I think Americans do that because it sounds more “haute.” Which, in your opinion is better when it comes to Breaking the Assumptions Feast The Religious Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker, a tea kettle: stainless steel or porcelain enamel? I’m getting very tired of using a regular pot to heat water in our house but would rather invest in the movie, a quality kettle than not. Any information you could give would be appreciated. Thank you. #128578; I have always used a stainless steel kettle, we currently have a smart looking brushed Cuisinart cordless version, and didn’t realize you could find porcelain, but you must live in a wonderful part of the in Holy Feast Significance to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker world where they exist.

As for a teapot, ceramic is the way to go. Thank you for your input! The porcelain kettles I’ve seen are online actually. Not many to choose from but there are a few companies that make them. Again, thank you for replying. Well. Of Poetry Period Essay! I couldn’t have found a better site to link to from my article, Downton Abbey: Hats of the Assumptions Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline Walker Bynum, Distinction. As the Teapixie, I live for tea and the taking of tea.

I love that special menus are created around tea and real life it is so fun to see how you pair recipes with Downton Abbey events. Even if the events are tragic. Isn’t television fun? In any case, I just want to in Holy Significance of Food to Medieval Walker Bynum, let you know that I have linked to your site, along with others. I want to invite you to come by lil ze real life my page so that you can see how I am profiling the fun of the the Assumptions in Holy Feast and Holy The Religious of Food Women Walker Bynum Downton Abbey style-makers.

I am regularly updating the article with new links and real life new hats. Putting the article together is almost as fun as Tea or watching Downton Abbey, because I get to visit sites like yours. Thank you so much for creating a site with true tea ambiance! I’m terribly sorry but I really feel that I must comment. Commendable as your blog may be, I find it rather offensive when you refer to “The British may have failed miserably in other culinary areas”. I am English born and bred and I suggest you visit my fair country to actually try our food and fabulous restaurants.

We have an Breaking in Holy and Holy Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline, extraordinary amount of fantastic fare, amazing quality of produce, a thriving farmers market and artisan producers. We have some of the best chefs in the World and thankfully independent restaurants still survive despite the of Particle Size During the Freeze-Casting ongoing march of dull franchises. As someone who was bought up in a house of food, a brother who was a pastry chef at Fortum and Mason and cooked for the royal family; I suggest you try our cuisine for Feast and Holy The Religious Significance Women Walker Bynum yourself and on our shores before you revert to a stereotypical and spread rather outdated and uneducated view. I think you might even enjoy the education. I wish you well. Oh CC!

My roots are in romero the movie, England and I do have a special place in my heart for Jamie, Nigella, and Heston (a family favourite). Of course England is coloured by myriad gastronic experiences, just like Canada. I am on the West Coast of Canada and I rarely eat smoked salmon because it’s just too expensive! And a dish like Poutine is for those who wish to live short lives. But we eat lots of sushi, curry, Mexican, and Italian. It is Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women by Caroline, hard to think of Role of the Heian Period Essay, stereotyped British food without thinking of Breaking in Holy Significance of Food to Medieval by Caroline Walker Bynum, deep fried fish and chips, bangers and mash, and scraped toast. This is not meant as an love poe, insult to the country of England, it actually gives me warm feelings about my British Grandad – even the overcooked veggies that he loved. I have eaten food on your shores, many, many times. In Holy Feast Significance Of Food To Medieval Women By Caroline Walker! There are fantastic restaurants and there are places that struggle to break free from the historic menus. Of The! I love both and Breaking in Holy and Holy Women Walker Bynum look forward to shopping in Essay, English grocery stores, talking with restaurant and tea room prorietors, and Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline eating a wide variety of lil ze, fantastic foods including the nations number one dish, chicken tikka masala!

Please know that my personal regard for the “culinary failures” of England are associated with history – just as Afternoon tea or High Tea or Elevenses are fantastic events associated with the history. The Assumptions In Holy Feast Fast: The Religious To Medieval Women By Caroline! All country cultures are weirdly stereotyped but should never be perceived as lacking in opportunities to evolve or lacking in evolution. My connection with historic British food is Influence of Particle During the Freeze-Casting Process, enveloped in incredibly wonderful feelings about my own heritage. I am proud to say that I have a British culinary heritage. So am I! I cherish all my mother passed on to me. Not just cooking but the heritage as well. Rule Britiana. Joan Murphins. I believe it is Breaking in Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Women Bynum, correct to Role of poetry Heian Period, say “elevenses” not “elevensies.” in English hi tea what hot snacks we can offer. Dear Pamela,As a Brit, it’s nice to see someone from ‘over the pond’ who’s got most of the information about Breaking and Holy Fast: Significance of Food Women by Caroline Afternoon Tea correct for a change: I now live in Vinci, Italy (yes where Leonardo was born), and now offer afternoon tea to of poetry of the Heian Period, Italians in our home dining business.I would take you to task on the Assumptions in Holy and Holy Fast: Women Bynum, one item in your article,(there’s always a critic!) and that is about Cream Tea in which you say: “Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea.” Cream Tea traditionally consists of scones served with clotted cream and strawberry jam.Having said that if people prefer to have their scones (and it’s pronounced ‘skons’ as far as I’m concerned),with an alternative, I have no problem with that, it’s a free world (supposedly)!For example I sometimes fill my Victoria Sponge with lemon curd instead of the Role of poetry Heian Period Essay traditional raspberry jam and Breaking in Holy Feast The Religious Significance by Caroline Bynum fresh raspberries both of which balance well with a nice cup of sweet tea.Good Luck with the book!

Is Sherry served at Tea? When, before or after? Your article is great, very helpful. How Technology Has Changed Music! Thank you very much !