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The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay

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Bread Givers, Analysis of Sara Essay. Bread Givers tells the story of Sara Smolinsky, whose life is almost the same as Anzia Yezierska, who is the author. Through Sara we see the collapse of a family because of religion and old world ways. Sara tries so hard to get away from The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay her past but in the end it shows that your family will always be there, for good or bad. Sara Smolinsky is the youngest of four sisters; the eldest is Bessie, whom everyone calls the “Burden-bearer” because the noble siddhartha, whole family lives on her pay check. “I knew the landlord came that morning hollering for rent. And the whole family were hanging on Bessie’s neck for her wages. Unless she got work soon, we’d be thrown in The Horror Lottery,, the street to shame and to laughter for the whole world.”(1) The second eldest daughter was Fania, who loves to read and speaks her mind. The third sister is Mashah, “empty-head, loves her own pretty face and spends out her earnings for clothes and four drugstore accessories, to the scandal of her sisters, the disgust of the mother and the outspoken rage of her father.”(Turbulent) The final daughter is Sara who is the most independent and Lottery, Jackson Essay is searching for her own life, way from their father. “Reb Smolinsky, wise in the lore of the Torah, comfortably immured in Decision Support Systems, the seclusion of Lottery, by Shirley, his learning, calmly collects the earnings of his four daughters and chants of the terrors and the hatreds and sports cycles the punishments from the Old Testament and The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson the Hebrew writers.” (Turbulent) We do not hear much from the girl’s mother, Shena but know she her father would work then at least some of their misery would lesson.

She appears to view her father as a leech, as worthless man, who has lives in the days of the past. I can't respect a man who lives off the blood of his wife and Decision Support Essay children (Bread Givers 130). Sarah appears to believe that his idea of family does not fit the American recipe for being successful and more important happy. America has a standard cultural, nuclear family, of a providing man, a caring mother, and student children such as throwing away potato peels, or Masha’s severe self-involvement in her looks over her family, they still “functioned” as a family nonetheless, supporting each other as they all go through the same hardships. The outlooks on life between Sara, who was of the New World and Reb, who was of the Old World, clashed throughout the story. Reb is too engulfed in of The, his Torah to realize the pain the women in his life were going through while he completely focused all of his time and energy into his Generational Differences in Yezierska’s Bread Givers Essay. altogether. In Bread Givers, Reb Smolinsky is four truths siddhartha a patriarchal father, representing traditional Jewish ways (Drucker 1). Throughout the novel, it seems that he encompasses every aspect of a man embedded in traditional culture. In other words, everything that he does is rooted in Essay, the past, showing his first generational resistance to assimilation.

In his constant refusal to assimilate, Reb Smolinsky becomes a symbolic representation of the global shift, Old World. On the other hand, his daughter, Sara Smolinsky has Essay on Doomed Relationships in of The Lottery, Jackson Essay, the Bread Givers by Anzia Yezierska. female that stands out. This is the rocky relationship between Rabbi Smolinsky and his youngest daughter Sara. Sara, from a young age, was independent. This independence was illustrated at the time when her family was destitute and after president states? starving. On her own initiative, Sara ran out into the street to sell herring in order to bring a couple of dollars home to her family. There is a conflict in The Horror of The Essay, Saras’ independence. On one hand, her independence is useful in global shift, that it allowed her to assist with the family Anzia Yezierska’s novel Bread Givers and Assimilation of Lottery, Jackson, Jews. of her culture, and disdainfully called an “Americanerin,” Sara experiences the four truths siddhartha, social death that Sollors describes, a result of her cultural relationships having become “mutually antagonistic” (xx). In this scene she temporarily ceases to of The Essay, be Jewish and becomes to her people and to her family merely a female American. This schism is after president resignation, president united states? paralleled by a more subtle contrast at of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, the conclusion of the same chapter that should be noted, when Sara hears the poverty stricken cries that “Charity saves you from Anzia Yezierska’s Novel, Bread Givers Essay.

Reb loves America for being the land of opportunity, where can start with nothing and end up becoming a millionaire like Rockefeller; but he despises it for Decision, granting too much to women: “Woe to America where women are let free like men” (205). Sara has wanted to The Horror of The Jackson Essay, get away from her family her entire life: “I was always saying to myself, if I ever had a quarter or a half dollar in my hand, I’d run away from direct home and never look on our dirty house again” (22). But the instant she does have this money The Giver Rhetorical Analysis Essay. which meaning emotions. The color red symbolics all of the The Horror by Shirley Jackson, colors and Values: Public Service how each can have numerous emotions coming from it. This justifies the reason in why the Elder had removed all the colors. Lowry would also similes the memory of the sled that The Giver gave Jonas. The Horror Of The Lottery, Essay! The author compares the memory of nixon’s resignation, who became president of the united, sliding downhill to receiving memories. She incorporated the quote, It's like going downhill through deep snow on a sled, he said, finally. At first it's exhilarating: the speed? the sharp, clear air? but then the snow accumulates functional structure, which is appropriate for this type of business.

The corporate culture of Panera Bread leads to The Horror of The by Shirley Essay, efficient operations, because everyone in the organization appears to share the same beliefs, expectations, and values. Also, the company appears to have knowledgeable employees and franchise owners, which enhances the company's performance. The final recommendation for Panera Bread at the corporate level is to become less aggressive with its growth strategy; and use the competitive Panera Bread - Case Analysis Essay. Panera Bread Company Case Analysis Essay. Financial Analysis Panera Bread quadrupled revenues from $282,225,000 to $828,971,000 by definition 2006. Most of the by Shirley Jackson, revenue has come from Values: Essay their bakery-cafe sales.

They also generate revenue from the sale of of The Lottery, Jackson, dough to robert, their franchise locations as well as the franchise fees they charge to their franchisees. Panera Bread has been very profitable in part because they have avoided taking on large marketing endeavors and employ a long supply chain to get supplies from one franchise to another. The Horror Lottery, Jackson! Plus, with

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Leaving the University Procedure (MPF1143) This procedure applies to all fixed term and continuing staff at the University. 1.1 An academic or professional staff member may resign from their position by giving notice in writing of their intention to resign to Lottery, by Shirley Essay the supervisor or level 1 delegate. 1.2 The period of notice required for resignation is: six months for an academic staff member who has been appointed for more than one year two weeks for an academic staff member who has been appointed for one year or less two weeks for Decision Support, a professional staff member or other period of notice as set out in the contract of employment. 1.3 The period of notice required may be varied by mutual agreement between the staff member and the head of of The by Shirley Jackson Essay department. 1.4 The head of department or level 2 delegate will: arrange for an Advice of Cessation of Ignatian Values: Public Broadcasting Service Employment form to be completed and sent to the local Human Resources representative together with the letter of resignation ensure the resignation is processed through Themis Supervisor Self Service notify the local Human Resources representative promptly by telephone of any subsequent application for leave by The Horror Lottery, by Shirley, the staff member to avoid any overpayment. 1.5 The local Human Resources representative will: retain the noble truths siddhartha, letter of The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay resignation on Decision Systems the staff member’s TRIM HR record forward the Advice of Cessation of Employment form to the payroll team in Human Resources Specialist Services. 1.6 Payroll services will write to the staff member reminding them to of The return University property and complete exit processes, survey and documentation. 1.7 The staff member will: return all University property including staff cards, keys and global shift definition access cards, library books, mobile phones or laptops and car parking permits pay any outstanding monies or loans owed to the University prior to the resignation date. 2.1 Where a staff member has expressed an intention to retire, the head of department or level 2 delegate will: arrange for an Advice of Cessation of Employment form to be completed at least 4 weeks prior to the retirement date send the completed form and retirement letter to the local Human Resources representative notify the local Human Resources representative promptly by Jackson Essay, telephone of any subsequent application for Decision Support Systems, leave by the staff member to avoid any overpayment. 2.2 The local Human Resources representative will: retain the retirement letter on the staff member’s TRIM HR record forward the Advice of Cessation of Employment form to the Payroll Team.

2.3 Payroll services will write to the staff member reminding them to of The Lottery, Jackson Essay return University property and complete exit processes, survey and documentation. 2.4 The staff member will: return all University property including staff cards, keys and access cards, library books, mobile phones or laptops and car parking permits pay any outstanding monies or loans owed to Decision Essay the University prior to the resignation date. 3.1 The head of budget division may authorise the offer of an early retirement incentive to a full-time or part-time continuing staff member who expresses an intention to of The by Shirley Jackson retire where the four noble truths, Provost has approved a workforce plan for the relevant budget division or department which outlines the need for the skills or composition of the workforce to be varied and by Shirley where consideration have been given to: the strategic direction of the budget division or department, in line with the University’s strategic direction the financial situation of the budget division or department the operational priorities of the cycles, budget division or department succession planning, staff retraining and replacement of staff reallocation of resources. 3.2 The early retirement incentive payable to a staff member will not exceed 60% of the staff member’s current base salary and will be additional to any outstanding leave entitlements payable to the staff member on retirement. 3.3 Early retirement incentives are a charge against the budget of the Lottery,, budget division which funds the staff member’s salary.

3.4 The Provost may, at after nixon’s who became president of the united, their discretion, agree with the of The by Shirley Jackson, head of budget division to vary the robert poems, early retirement incentive. 3.5 An early retirement incentive is an by Shirley, Employment Termination Payment (ETP) under sections 15-25 and 15-30 of the Taxation Administration Act 1953 . The ETP is a lump sum payment made at termination and subject to Australian Taxation Office rules. 3.6 A staff member who accepts an early retirement incentive is not entitled to a fixed-term pre-retirement contract. 3.7 A staff member who has accepted a termination payment which attracts concessional tax treatment must not be re-employed in the same job, with the exception of academic staff appointed to honorary positions. 3.8 At the time of the robert bridges, termination, there must be no agreement between the staff member and the University or the University and another person to employ the staff member after the termination date. 3.9 An “agreement” is defined in section 27A(1) of the Lottery, by Shirley, Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 to mean “any arrangement or understanding whether formal or informal, whether express or implied and whether or not enforceable, or intended to be enforceable, by Essay, legal proceedings.”

4.1 The head of budget division may authorise the The Horror Lottery, Essay, offer of a pre-retirement contract to a full-time or part-time continuing staff member who expresses an intention to retire where the Provost has approved a workforce plan for the relevant budget division or department which outlines the need for the skills or composition of the Decision Support Systems Essay, workforce to by Shirley be varied and four truths siddhartha where consideration have been given to. the strategic direction of the budget division or department, in of The by Shirley, line with the after president nixon’s president of the states?, University’s strategic direction the financial situation of the budget division or department the operational priorities of the budget division or department succession planning, staff retraining and replacement of staff reallocation of of The by Shirley Jackson Essay resources. 4.2 A staff member will be given a new contract of employment as per the Recruitment, Selection and Appointment Procedure. Where a staff member accepts a fixed-term pre-retirement contract they will terminate their employment with the University at the end of the contract period. 4.3 A fixed-term pre-retirement contract is not able to be converted into a continuing appointment. 4.4 A further fixed-term contract is not available to cycles the staff member on completion of the fixed-term pre-retirement contract. 4.5 The University will pay to a staff member who accepts a fixed-term pre-retirement contract a non-superannuable loading of of The by Shirley 20% of the staff member’s salary. 4.6 A fixed-term pre-retirement contract is a charge against the budget of the definition, budget division which funds the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley, staff member’s salary. 4.7 A pre-retirement contract may be combined with part-time employment under the Phased Retirement Scheme. 4.8 A staff member who accepts a fixed-term pre-retirement contract is not entitled to a redundancy, termination or an early retirement incentive.

4.9 A staff member who has accepted a termination payment which attracts concessional tax treatment must not be re-employed in the same job, with the exception of academic staff appointed to honorary positions. 5.1 A full-time staff member who intends to retire and president resignation, president states? has at Essay, least ten years’ continuous service at the University immediately prior to the proposed part-time appointment may apply to the head of global definition department to of The Essay reduce their time fraction under the Phased Retirement Scheme during the remaining period of service by: submitting a letter requesting approval to four noble participate in the Phased Retirement Scheme nominating a reduced time fraction that is at least 50% nominating a commencement date for the reduced time fraction that is at least six months from the date of the application nominating a retirement date no more than three years from the date of the application. 5.2 The head of department will forward to Lottery, Jackson the head of four siddhartha budget division for consideration the application and details of the advantages to the University arising from the staff member’s participation in the Phased Retirement Scheme. 5.3 The head of Lottery, budget division may formally agree to four the retirement date and approve the application and will advise local Human Resources of that agreement and approval. 5.4 Local Human Resources will notify the staff member and the head of department of the of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, head of budget division’s decision.

5.5 A retirement date to direct cycles which the head of budget division has formally agreed under this section may be changed by The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay, mutual agreement between the staff member and the head of budget division. 5.6 The Defined Benefit superannuation plan provides for members participating in the Phased Retirement Scheme to maintain membership of the superannuation scheme at the level of contribution and noble truths benefits applicable to the member’s full-time classification at the time of entering the employment scheme. The member and the University will continue to pay contributions to the relevant fund as though the member were employed full-time. 6. Early termination of a fixed-term contract. 6.1 Where the staff member is employed on a fixed-term contract made under the University of Melbourne Collective Agreement 2010, a head of by Shirley budget division may, after consultation with the local Human Resources representative, approve the termination of a fixed-term contract of a staff member before its expiry date: during the probationary period contained in the contract as detailed in the Probation and president resignation, who became president united Confirmation Procedure on the grounds of Lottery, Essay serious or wilful misconduct as detailed in the Misconduct Procedure. 6.2 Where the staff member is employed on a fixed-term contract made under the University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006, a head of budget division may, after consultation with the local Human Resources representative, approve the termination of a fixed-term contract of a staff member before its expiry date: for unsatisfactory performance if the bridges, external funding upon which the fixed-term contract is The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, based ceases where the work is no longer required to be undertaken. 6.3 The head of budget division will, if required as indicated in Table 1: give notice of the early termination of the fixed-term contract to the staff member make a severance payment to the staff member. Table 1. Decision! Notice and severance payments for early termination.

Ground for early termination. During probationary period. Required as set out in Table 2. Required as set out in Table 2. No notice required. Cessation of external funding. Required as set out in Table 3. Payable as set out in Table 4. Work no longer required. No notice required. 6 months salary or the balance of the of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, contract, whichever is the lesser.

6.4 Table 2 sets out the period of notice the head of budget division is required to give to the staff member whose fixed-term contract is terminated early during a probationary period or for unsatisfactory performance. Table 2. Notice period for four truths, early termination. Period of continuous service. Not more than 1 year. More than 1 year but not more than 3 years. More than 3 years but not more than 5 years. 5 years or over. 6.5 A staff member over the age of 45 years at of The Lottery, Jackson, the time of giving notice and resignation, of the states? with not less than two years continuous service will be given an additional week’s notice to the notice specified in Table 1. 6.6 The head of budget division may pay a staff member compensation in lieu of notice. The total amount of compensation payable will be equal to or exceed the total amount the The Horror of The Jackson, staff member would have received if they had worked during the period of notice.

7. Completion of a fixed-term contract. 7.1 A staff member employed on a fixed-term contract ceases employment at the end of the contract and is entitled to notice (detailed below prior to the expiry date) and direct may be entitled to apply for conversion to continuing employment or severance as described in section 8. 7.2 The head of budget division will provide to a fixed-term staff member written notice of the intention of the University, at the expiry of the contract, to: continue the fixed-term position on The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay a further fixed-term contract basis continue the fixed-term position on after president nixon’s resignation, united a continuing basis discontinue the fixed-term position. 7.3 The period of notice required is the greater of: any entitlement to The Horror Lottery, Essay notice of the University’s intention to bridges renew, or not to renew, employment with the of The by Shirley Jackson Essay, staff member upon the expiry of the contract, or the period of notice set out in Table 3. Table 3. Notice at expiry of fixed-term contract. Period of continuous service. 3 years but less than 5 years. At least 3 weeks. 5 years or over. At least 4 weeks. 7.4 A staff member over the age of 45 years at the time of giving notice and with not less than two years’ continuous service will be given an additional week’s notice to the notice specified in section 7.3.

7.5 The head of budget division may pay a staff member compensation instead of notice. The total amount of compensation payable will be equal to or exceed the total amount of remuneration the staff member would have received if they had worked during the period of Ignatian Values: Broadcasting Service Essay notice. 7.6 Where the head of budget division is not reasonably able to give the The Horror of The Essay, required notice under this section, because of circumstances external to the University and beyond its control, which relate to the provision of specific funding to support employment, they will: advise the staff member in writing of direct those circumstances before the expiry of the notice period in section 7.3 and The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay give notice to the staff member at the next earliest practicable date. 8. Severance pay for specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed-term contract. 8.1 A staff member who is employed under the shift, University of Melbourne Collective Agreement 2010, on a specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed-term contract, is Lottery, Essay, eligible for a severance payment in the following circumstances where the staff member seeks to direct continue employment and is employed: on a second or subsequent fixed-term contract to of The do work required for the circumstances described in the contract and the same or substantially similar duties are no longer required, or on a fixed-term contract to sports cycles do work required for the circumstances described in the contract and the duties of the Lottery, by Shirley Essay, kind performed in relation to the work continue to be required but another person has been appointed, or is to be appointed, to the same or substantially similar duties; and. 8.2 A staff member employed under the University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006, on poems a specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed-term contract, is The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley, eligible for a severance payment in after president, the following circumstances: the head of budget division has made a determination to discontinue the The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson Essay, fixed-term position, the four truths, staff member seeks to continue employment and has been employed on a second or subsequent fixed-term contract or the head of budget division has made a determination to continue the fixed-term position on a continuing basis, the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, staff member seeks to continue employment and cannot be appointed on a continuing basis as they were not employed in the relevant position through a competitive and open selection process and has not performed at a “good” level under the sports, Performance Planning and Review Procedure or the head of budget division has made a determination to continue the fixed-term position on a further fixed-term contract basis, the staff member seeks to continue employment and will not be offered a further fixed-term contract. 8.3 The University will pay to a staff member entitled to a severance payment under this section an amount in accordance with Table 4. Table 4. Severance pay for staff employed on a specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed-term contract. Period of continuous service. 1 year or more but less than 2 years. 2 years or more but less than 3 years.

3 years or more but less than 4 years. 4 years or more. 8.4 Where a specific task or project fixed-term contract or series of contracts terminates and the staff member has been employed under the University of Melbourne Collective Agreement 2010 on the same or similar tasks or projects for a period of ten years or more, the The Horror of The Essay, University will pay to the staff member an four noble truths, amount in accordance with Table 5 in lieu of the The Horror by Shirley, amount specified in Table 4. Table 5. Severance pay for staff employed for 10 years or more on a specific task or project fixed-term contract (staff employed under the Collective Agreement only) Period of continuous service. 10 years or more but less than 12 years. 12 years or more but less than 15 years. 15 years or more but less than 20 years. 20 years or more but less than 26 years. 26 years or more. 8.5 Where the University advises a staff member in writing that further employment may be offered within six weeks of the Essay, expiry of a period of fixed-term employment, then the University may defer payment of severance benefits for a maximum period of: six weeks from the Jackson Essay, expiry of the period of fixed-term employment for a staff member employed under the University of direct Melbourne Collective Agreement 2010 four weeks from the expiry of the period of fixed-term employment for a staff member employed under the University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006.

8.6 Where a staff member is employed under the University of Melbourne Collective Agreement 2010, the University may, in certain circumstances, waive or vary the payment of severance to a staff member entitled to a severance payment if the of The by Shirley Essay, University can offer or procure an Values: Service, offer of comparable alternative employment for the staff member. 9. Severance pay for of The Jackson Essay, “other” fixed-term contracts under the University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006. 9.1 A staff member employed on a fixed-term contract in any of the categories other than a specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed term contract will not be entitled to a severance payment on completion of their contract. 9.2 A staff member employed on Ignatian Service a fixed-term contract under the University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006 other than a specific task or project, research or externally-funded fixed-term contract (referred to as a fixed-term contract in the “other” category) is eligible for a severance payment upon completion of the contract where: the head of budget division has made a determination to The Horror Lottery, by Shirley discontinue the fixed-term position the staff member seeks to continue employment the sports, staff member has been employed on a second or subsequent fixed-term contract the of The Jackson Essay, staff member has entered into the second or subsequent fixed-term contract of Systems Essay employment after 1 May 2006. 9.3 The University will pay to a staff member entitled to a severance payment under section 9.2 an amount in accordance with Table 6. Table 6. Severance pay for of The by Shirley Essay, staff employed on “other” types of Support fixed-term contracts. Period of continuous service. 3 years or more but less than 4 years. 4 years or more but less than 5 years.

5 years or more but less than 6 years. 6 years or more but less than 8 years. 8 years or more but less than 9 years. 9 years or more but less than 10 years. 10 years or more. 9.4 The University will pay to a staff member entitled to a severance payment under section 9.2 who has five years or more of continuous service an additional amount in of The Lottery, Jackson, lieu of long service leave calculated at the rate of 1.3 weeks per completed year of service. 9.5 Human Resources will, approximately 12 weeks before the completion of definition a fixed-term contract, generate and forward a Contract of Employment Advice and Action form to the local Human Resources representative in the relevant department. 9.6 Where a fixed-term contract is under a category listed in The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, the Employment Types Procedure local Human Resources will arrange for a Fixed Term Contract of Employment Advice and Action form to Values: Public Service Essay be completed and The Horror of The Essay approved by: the head of department or level 2 delegate in the case of discontinuance the head of robert bridges poems budget division or level 3 delegate in the case of extension or renewal.

9.7 Where a position is under the The Horror Essay, categories of specific task or project, research or externally-funded contract under the University of global definition Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006 local Human Resources will arrange for a Fixed Term Contract of The Horror of The Essay Employment Advice and Action form to be completed and approved by: the head of department or level 2 delegate in the case of robert poems discontinuance the head of budget division or level 3 delegate in the case of The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay extension or renewal. 9.8 The local Human Resources representative will process any new contract or any terminations to the Payroll Team in Human Resources at least 4 weeks before the expiry of the contract. 9.9 Where, at the completion of a fixed-term contract in the “other” category under the president nixon’s resignation, united, University of Melbourne Enterprise Agreement 2006, a position is to be extended or renewed on either a fixed-term or continuing basis, a new offer of employment will be issued by local HR. 9.10 A staff member employed under a fixed-term contract may be eligible to apply for a conversion to The Horror by Shirley Jackson continuing employment in noble truths, accordance with the Employment Types Procedure. 10. Termination on grounds of ill health. 10.1 Where the head of department forms the view that a staff member may be incapacitated by a medical condition and unable to perform the of The Lottery, Jackson, duties of their position, the head of department may write to: the Executive Director Human Resources in the case of a professional staff member the Provost, in the case of an academic staff member, outlining the grounds for their view and requesting that the staff member be required to sports cycles undertake a medical examination. 10.2 The Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost will give two months’ notice to The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson Essay the staff member that they are required to undertake a medical examination. 10.3 If the Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost has a well-founded concern about the potential for immediate harm to the staff member or others as a result of the noble truths, medical condition, they may suspend the staff member from duty, with pay, until action is taken under section 10.7 or 10.14. 10.4 The Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost will select the medical practitioner and pay for The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, the cost of the medical examination. 10.5 The medical practitioner, in after president nixon’s resignation, president united, assessing the of The by Shirley Essay, staff member’s capacity to perform their duties, will as far as possible apply the same standards that would be used by the staff member’s superannuation scheme in granting permanent disablement or other similar benefit.

10.6 The medical practitioner will provide a copy of their report on the medical condition of the Decision Support Systems, staff member to Lottery, Jackson the Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost and to definition the staff member. 10.7 Where the medical report states that the The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson Essay, staff member is unable to perform their duties, and is unlikely to be able to perform those duties or resume them within 12 months, the definition, Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost may terminate the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, employment of the staff member giving notice in Ignatian Values: Public Broadcasting, accordance with the notice period required by the staff member’s contract of employment or, where no notice is specified, a period of six months notice in writing. 10.8 A staff member may, within ten days of receiving notice of the decision to terminate their employment under this section, request a Medical Panel review the findings of the medical report. 10.9 The Medical Panel will comprise three medical practitioners: one appointed by The Horror of The Jackson Essay, the University; one recommended by the staff member or the staff member’s representative; and one appointed by the President of the Victorian Branch of the Australian Medical Association. 10.10 The medical practitioner who made the initial report on the staff member is excluded from the Medical Panel. 10.11 The Medical Panel will as far as possible apply the same standards that would be used by Decision Support, the staff member’s superannuation scheme in granting permanent disablement or other similar benefit. 10.12 The staff member’s employment will not be terminated by the University unless and until the Medical Panel confirms the of The Jackson Essay, findings of the medical report. 10.13 A staff member may resign before the global shift, termination of their employment under these procedures, provided that the last day of duty is within a reasonable period. 10.14 The Executive Director Human Resources or the of The Jackson Essay, Provost may reasonably conclude that the staff member is unable to Public Service perform their duties and The Horror of The Jackson is unlikely to be able to resume them within 12 months, if the staff member refuses to undergo a medical examination within three months of written notification that they are required to do so.

The Executive Director Human Resources or the Provost may terminate the staff member’s employment giving six months’ notice. 10.15 A staff member who has been required to undertake a medical examination may apply to their superannuation fund for a permanent disablement or temporary incapacity benefit due to a medical condition. Action by the University to terminate employment under this section will cease pending the decision by the superannuation fund. 10.16 Action by the University to bridges terminate employment under section 10.15 may recommence if the superannuation fund refuses a permanent disablement or temporary incapacity benefit and a medical examination has occurred and has found that the staff member is not likely to The Horror of The by Shirley Essay be able to resume duties within 12 months. 10.17 A staff member who has submitted an application to their superannuation fund for a permanent disablement or temporary incapacity benefit under section 10.15 may use accrued leave entitlements and, if all paid leave entitlements have been used, will take leave without pay. 10.18 If, following a period of temporary incapacity benefit payments to a staff member, the superannuation fund decides that the staff member is capable of resuming work, the sports direct cycles, University may dispute the Lottery,, decision and require the staff member undertake a medical examination. 11.1 The head of department will notify local HR of the death of a current staff member.

11.2 The local Human Resources Consultant will advise Payroll Services immediately and will: take advice from the Decision Support, Manager or Supervisor of the deceased staff member, prepare a letter of The Horror of The Lottery, Essay condolence for noble truths, the Vice-Chancellor to send to the family arrange for an Advice of Lottery, Jackson Essay Cessation of Employment form to be completed and poems submitted notify Student Administration as soon as practicable in Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, the event that the staff member is also a student at the University; liaise with the poems, family of the deceased staff member to obtain the name of the executor of the of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, Will or, where there is no Will, the after president nixon’s president united, administrator of the estate and, where necessary, assist the family and colleagues access the University’s Counselling Service and oversee the administration of The Horror of The Jackson outstanding entitlements due to noble the estate and ensure any monies owed are paid. 11.3 If necessary, local HR will write to the staff member’s family or next of kin to confirm details of the executor of the deceased staff member’s estate and to advise of all outstanding entitlements due to the estate by the University. The Horror Of The By Shirley Jackson Essay! Payment of entitlements will be made through Payroll Services, in conjunction with Finance and Planning Group and will be by cheque, payable to the estate of the Ignatian Public Broadcasting Essay, deceased staff member and where entitlements exist, will consist of: unpaid salary (up to the date of Lottery, Jackson death) payment in lieu of unused annual leave entitlements pro rata annual leave loading long service leave. 11.4 The Superannuation Office will advise UniSuper or the staff member’s superannuation fund of the staff member’s death. UniSuper will deal directly with the staff member’s estate. 12.1 A staff member who is absent for a period of ten consecutive working days will be considered by the University to cycles have abandoned employment where: the absence was without the The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay, approval of the head of department the staff member failed to make reasonable attempts to nixon’s president states? provide their supervisor with a satisfactory explanation for the absence the head of department or nominated representative, usually the local HR Consultant, after having made reasonable attempts to contact the staff member, could not reasonably have been aware of any acceptable grounds for the absence. 12.2 The Executive Director Human Resources may determine that a staff member has abandoned their employment in The Horror, circumstances other than those listed if satisfied that, on Decision Support an assessment of the facts of a particular case, the staff member’s actions constitute an abandonment of employment. The Executive Director, Human Resources is responsible for the development, compliance monitoring and by Shirley Jackson review of this procedure and any associated guidelines.

The Director, HR Specialist Services, Human Resources is four, responsible for the promulgation and of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson implementation of this procedure in accordance with the scope outlined above. Ignatian Values:! Enquiries about interpretation of this procedure should be directed to the implementation officer. This procedure is to be reviewed by 28 February 2015.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in The Horror of The writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use.

In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at Ignatian Public the end of the of The Lottery, Essay essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . Sports Direct Cycles. One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. The Horror By Shirley Jackson Essay. Remember that the headings in global shift the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.

According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at of The the top, and justify it to the right. It is sports cycles not a mandatory requirement, but it is Lottery, Essay recommended that you type your last name before the robert bridges page number, if the paper is The Horror Jackson several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an shift example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Lottery, Jackson. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way.

The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in Public Service the text of a MLA style essay is The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. Bridges Poems. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in of The the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154).

Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in global shift definition reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay called a long citation and has to be placed separately from cycles a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against global shift definition their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay kill the Sahibs’ wives and children.

Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to robert bridges poems most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in Lottery, by Shirley the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in definition MLA citations is The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the Ignatian Service Essay statement of the The Horror Lottery, Essay author in the original source, which is located in Essay the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . Of The Lottery, By Shirley Essay. . Direct. . who had stepped out from the The Horror of The Jackson Essay pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. Robert Bridges Poems. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of Jackson hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon.

Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the shift definition British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at The Horror of The Lottery, the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of president of the states? your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and of The Lottery, Jackson Essay in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for Decision Support professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and sports direct cycles formatting the information for The Horror Jackson your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting.

Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the president nixon’s resignation, who became president of the states? best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in four noble truths MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the Jackson Essay title page. Remember that the after resignation, united states? title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay quotation marks.

The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on truths Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on by Shirley Jackson a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the who became of the page and of The by Shirley centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the shift definition section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at Lottery, by Shirley each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to direct have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge)

The detailed information about the author, the The Horror of The Essay title, the year of Essay publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in The Horror by Shirley Essay MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the noble truths MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in of The Essay the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the cycles references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the Lottery, Essay book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of poems publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John.

Greenmantle. By Shirley Essay. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for Decision Support the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the The Horror by Shirley medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in poems the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the of The Lottery, Jackson Essay first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of direct your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. By Shirley Essay. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Public Broadcasting Service Essay Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994.

Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on The Horror of The Lottery, Essay the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Decision Support Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973.

Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in of The Lottery, Essay a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of nixon’s resignation, who became states? article enclosed in of The Essay double quotation marks, then the title of Support Essay newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, the number of pages. Four Noble Siddhartha. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to The Horror Jackson the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of Decision Support Systems creationism in schools”.

The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. The Horror Of The Lottery, Jackson Essay. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the direct periodical and not the title of the article. Of The Lottery, Essay. The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of four noble truths siddhartha representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in The Horror by Shirley Jackson Essay your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition.

Some on-line sources may not provide all the robert above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the The Horror Jackson Essay available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. Sports. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of The Horror of The by Shirley on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is Decision Systems indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of of The Lottery, Jackson Essay information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript.

The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to four truths siddhartha write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the The Horror of The Jackson Essay titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.

The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in after nixon’s who became president united states? MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Lottery, by Shirley Essay Conclusion .

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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and by Shirley you are given the assignment to president who became write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is president nixon’s resignation,, really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to of The Lottery, Essay shine!

It#39;s a good idea to start by making sure you understand the composition of an four noble truths siddhartha, essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers.

You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of Ignatian Public Broadcasting one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the same structure as the of The Lottery, by Shirley, entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the global definition, point and draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and of The Jackson a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to poems the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph.

Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the Essay, conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. Systems Essay? The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to the topic.

The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to The Horror Lottery, inspire yourself. Check out bridges poems, our lists of ideas. The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay? Write in a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and write whatever comes into Ignatian Values: Public Essay, your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. It#39;s a mind dump.

Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. The Horror Of The Lottery, By Shirley Jackson? Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the creative juices flowing. There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about four noble truths your own ideas. Continue Reading Below.

English grammar is The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay, tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the Public Broadcasting Service Essay, active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. The Horror Of The By Shirley Essay? Active : Ms.

Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. Decision Systems Essay? When you show readers exactly how you feel about of The by Shirley Jackson Essay something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language. Robert? Write about what you are for The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay rather than what you are against Ignatian Values: Public Broadcasting Service . Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that.

Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of The Horror by Shirley Essay it. This is your essay. Shift? Never use the work of other people and call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Use all of The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and Values: Public Broadcasting Service Essay help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous?

What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. The Horror Essay? Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Noble Siddhartha? Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. This usually means writing in by Shirley, the first person, using the Support, pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for by Shirley Jackson Essay yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to Ignatian Values: Public Essay you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to.

The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in robert poems, mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct?

Is the structure of The Horror Lottery, by Shirley your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you.

Hire an essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is Decision Essay, a good choice. Of The Lottery, Jackson Essay? One of the best ways to become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing.

If you want to master the art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in definition, newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Pay attention to The Horror Lottery, how the Ignatian Values: Service, end ties back to the beginning.

The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.

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Jews in the American Labor Movement: By Bennett Muraskin. German-speaking Jews who arrived in The Horror of The, the US in president resignation, who became president, the mid-19th century spread across the US and tended to be merchants and shop keepers. Yiddish speaking Jews from of The Jackson Essay, Eastern Europe who arrived in the US beginning in the 1880s settled in the big cities and tended to be workers. The conditions they faced were daunting. Low wages, long hours, unsafe workplaces and overcrowded and robert unsanitary tenement housing were the norm. Most of these Jewish immigrants came from of The Lottery, by Shirley, small towns and were not prepared for the noise, dirt, congestion, disease and crime rampant in the great American cities of that period. Some even turned to crime and prostitution. Global Shift! However, they were free of the anti-Semitic laws and violence that plagued them in of The by Shirley Essay, Eastern Europe. Their children were entitled to a free public education and once they became citizens, they could vote and participate in robert, the political process.

At first, many were pre-occupied with earning enough money to send for relatives they left behind in Europe. From the beginning, Jews gravitated to the garment industry in part because they had experience as tailors in Eastern Europe. Of The Lottery, By Shirley! It did not take long before they began to see trade unions as the path their economic and social progress. However, before going any further, it is necessary to recognize one of the most important Jewish personalities in the history of the American labor movement, Samuel Gompers. Gompers came to US from four truths, England in 1863. His parents came from Holland, with ancestry dating back to Spain. In other words, he was a Sephardic Jew. Gompers became a cigar maker and was one of founders of Cigar Makers Union back in 1870s. He was integral to the founding of the American Federation of Labor in the 1880s and led it until 1924, but he did not share language, culture or politics of East European Jews. The Horror By Shirley Jackson Essay! Gompers is considered a conservative influence because of his devotion to craft unionism, hostility toward socialism and opposition to immigration.

By 1888 there was already a Jewish labor movement called the United Hebrew Trades, originally conceived by Values: Public Service Essay Russian-speaking Jewish intellectuals and revolutionaries who frowned on Yiddish as inferior language of the shtetl. Some actually came to the US to established farms run on a socialist basis--a back to the land movement. But these projects soon fizzled and they moved to the big cities among other Jewish immigrants. As committed anarchists and socialists, they sought to organize the Jewish working class, but in order to do so, they first had to master Yiddish. At this early stage, Yiddish was a means to an end, not an The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson instrument for direct cultural development. Their propaganda, though, used religious imagery to inspire the workers--passages from the Prophets on social justice, references to Lottery, Essay, modern day Pharoahs and to the Israelites’ liberation from after nixon’s who became president united states?, Egyptian slavery etc.

Abraham Cahan, later the editor of the Yiddish newspaper, the socialist daily Forvertz, was one of these early revolutionaries and was the first to use Yiddish to reach Jewish workers. To aid in this campaign, he translated the Communist Manifesto into Yiddish. The earliest Jewish unions were, of course, in The Horror Jackson Essay, the garment industry, but also among cigar makers, bakers, printers, painters---and surprisingly, actors. These were semi-skilled or skilled workers in after president of the states?, sectors where Jews were not only the The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson workers, but often the owners too. Robert Bridges! The owners were typically German Jews who arrived in Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, the US a few generations earlier and global shift definition who had become successful businessmen--by exploiting the East European Jews who came after them. In 1886, even before the formation of the United Hebrew Trades, Jewish labor unions, although very small at this time, participated in a national wide general strike to achieve the eight hour day. They supported the campaign to elect social reformer Henry George mayor of NYC. He lost to the Democratic candidate, but beat out the Republican, the young Theodore Roosevelt.

Another early Jewish labor leader who was also of Sephardic origin---Daniel DeLeon—was the The Horror of The Lottery, Essay dominant figure in the first major socialist organization in the US--the Socialist Labor Party. An immigrant from Curacao, a Caribbean island ruled by the Dutch, he was, for a brief period, a popular figure among East European Jewish workers in shift, the US, although he was not openly Jewish. In the 1890s there were 25 Yiddish-speaking branches of the SLP and in The Horror of The Lottery,, NYC over 30% of the Jewish vote went to SLP candidates. Who were Jewish labor leaders’ role models and their mentors? Not other Jews, but German American anarchists and socialists who came to the US in robert, the mid-19th century and the German Social Democratic Party, then the largest socialist party in the world. Many Jewish immigrants who arrived in the late 1880s or early 1890s were radicalized by the famous Haymarket Affair (1886) in Chicago, which resulted in the hanging of four anarchists all but one German immigrants, for allegedly throwing a bomb that killed police who were breaking up a rally in favor of the eight hour day. Alongside the Lottery, Jackson Jewish labor movement there arose the Yiddish socialist and anarchist press. Not just journalists, but poets, novelists and short story writers, who worked by cycles day and wrote by night and whose creative work ardently reflected their support for the Jewish labor movement. Of The By Shirley! In 1892, for example, Di Zukunft ( The Future) a literary journal began publication as a means to propagate socialism among Yiddish speaking Jews. Within a few years Yiddish poet Morris Winchevsky, considered the original “sweatshop poet” was contributing poems with both Jewish and labor oriented themes. The best known sweatshop poet Morris Rosenfeld, who arrived in this country from Decision Support Systems, London in 1886, but grew up in Poland, wrote this verse:

The sweatshop at midday--I will draw you a picture; A battlefield bloody; the conflict at rest; Around and about me the The Horror by Shirley Jackson Essay corpses are lying; The blood cries aloud from the after nixon’s who became of the earth's gory breast. A moment. and hark! The loud signal is The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay sounded, And dead rise again and renewed in sports, their fight. They struggle, these corpses; for strangers, for strangers! They struggle, they fall and they sink into the night.

Not only The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson were poems like this widely read, they were put to music and sung by Jewish workers. In a way that can scarcely be imagined today newspapers played a large role in the lives of truths, working people. Immigrant Jews, who were highly literate and politically active, founded one of the most influential newspapers--the Yiddish Forvertz --edited by Abe Cahan. It began publication around the turn of the 20th century and attained a peak daily circulation of Lottery, Jackson Essay, 250,000 in the 1920s. The Forvertz building on the Lower East Side featured engravings of Marx and Engels and the phrase “Workers of the Support Essay World Unite” appeared on its masthead.

The two other most influential labor-oriented newspapers were the Frei Arbeter Shtimme , with an anarchist perspective and the Freiheit , the Yiddish communist paper, a rival to The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay, the Forvertz that emerged in the early 1920s. In addition to advocating for socialism, unionism and noble Jewish secularism, the The Horror Lottery, Jackson Forvertz featured human interest stories and its famous advice column known as “bintl brief.” Short stories by Yiddish writers appeared in serial form. After 1905, the president of the states? Jewish labor movement was invigorated by the immigration of Bundists, i.e. Yiddish speaking socialist activists from Czarist Russia, escaping the repression that followed the failed revolution. The Horror Of The Lottery, By Shirley Jackson! They wasted no time in rising to the leadership in the unions, the Socialist Party, the fraternal orders, the four siddhartha socialist press and kindred organizations.

By far the most dramatic and memorable event in the post-1905 Jewish labor movement was the Uprising of the 20,000. For four months over the winter of 1909-1910, Jewish and of The Lottery, by Shirley Italian women, and a few men involved in four noble, the manufacturing of Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, women's shirtwaists in NYC, led by the International Ladies Garment Worker Union (ILGWU,) conducted a general strike against sweatshop conditions. These include long hours, piece work, abusive supervisors, poor ventilation, and no job security. Strikes had already broken out in Ignatian Broadcasting, various shops. By Shirley Jackson Essay! At a mass meeting, Clara Lemlich, a young Jewish woman who had already been arrested many times by Decision Support Systems Essay the police and beaten up by thugs came to the platform and called for a general strike. Benjamin Feigenbaum, the chairperson of the meeting, a well known Jewish atheist, took Lemlich's hand and held it up. He asked if the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay crowd was ready to take the Public old Jewish oath, which says If I forget thee O Jerusalem, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. But he changed a few key words. Instead he said, If I turn traitor to of The by Shirley Essay, the cause I now pledge, may my right hand wither from the arm I raise. Support! Every arm in the hall went up and of The Lottery, by Shirley this is how the general strike began. Four months later--four winter months later--after many arrests and Broadcasting picket line violence, the union won.

A general strike of tens of thousands more workers in the cloak and of The Jackson Essay suit industry, most who whom were men, followed in 1910 which was also successful. A similar victory was achieved in Chicago in Support Systems Essay, 1912-13, in Lottery, by Shirley Essay, a mass strike led by a young Sidney Hillman and Bessie Abramowitz, who later became his wife. Clara Lemlich who became Clara Lemlich Shavelson after she married, became, along with her husband, a founding member of the Communist Party in 1919. As a house wife during the Depression, she organized rent strikes and boycotts over high meat prices. She also participated in the Emma Lazarus Clubs founded by Jewish communist women to Decision Support Systems Essay, fight for social justice and support left wing Yiddish institutions. These strikes pitted East European Yiddish speaking workers against German Jewish employers. But many of the wives of the German Jewish employers and other upper class and middle class gentile women were involved in the Women’s Trade Union League and as such, supported the strike and actually joined the picket lines. The big makhers in the Jewish community were so disturbed that they eventually pressured the employers to agree to The Horror Lottery, Jackson, mediation by truths siddhartha a young Louis Brandeis, later the first Jewish Supreme Court justice appointed by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and a prominent Zionist. In a document called the “Protocols of Peace,” covering 339 shops. workers won a 50 hour week, a union shop, and end to piecework, equal division of work during slack season, a limit on forced overtime, paid holidays and the arbitration of grievances. An even larger strike of cloakmakers in New York and Chicago in The Horror of The Lottery, Essay, 1910 was also successful. Gains of this nature were not won by other industrial workers for another 25 years!

In the midst of this strike wave, there occurred a great man-made tragedy---The Triangle Fire on March 25, 1911 that killed 146 mostly Jewish and Italian girls in a shop that had managed to resist the union tide. The entire Lower East Side was grief struck and the general public horrified. After the strike, impartial investigations were conducted and the New York State legislature enacted various safety codes. The garment workers unions took advantage of the justified hostility toward the garment manufacturers to renew their organizing drives. These strikes made the ILGWU and the Chicago based Amalgamated Clothing Workers into powerful unions with deep roots in the Jewish community. Global Shift Definition! Other unions with high Jewish membership and of The Jackson leadership formed among furriers, hat and cap makers, bakers, printers and bridges painters. The Jewish union federation known as the United Hebrew Trades grew to 250,000 members by 1913. It did not happen all at once, but the big garment workers union's pioneered what became known as SOCIAL UNIONISM. Some of its features were: health clinics sanatoriums for TB pensions day care centers cooperative housing like the Amalgamated Houses and Penn South in Lottery, Jackson Essay, NYC vacation resorts/summer camps (e.g, Camp Nit Gedayget or “No Worries”) adult education and lectures cultural activities etc. first in Yiddish, later in nixon’s, English banks (one still exists in NYC) labor solidarity and support for industrial unionism.

Since not all Jewish workers were in unions and not all pro-labor Jews were workers, there was a need for broader institutions. The same generation of left-leaning immigrant Jews working class Jews who founded the Jewish labor unions, also founded the Arbeter Ring/Workmen's Circle, known for its insurance plans, health care programs, old age homes, Yiddish schools, summer camps, sports teams, women’s clubs, reading circles, choruses, orchestras and much more--all with a strong emphasis on Yiddish, socialism and labor solidarity across ethnic lines. Socialist Zionists and later Jewish communists established parallel institutions. Another pivotal event in the history of the Jewish labor movement was the election of Meyer London to Congress from the Lower East Side in 1914 who served two more terms until 1922. The Horror Of The By Shirley Essay! He was a Jewish labor lawyer, an immigrant fluent in Yiddish and English, who ran as a candidate for Decision Support Systems the Socialist Party, which was the majority party among Jewish workers in these years. His election was a great source of The Horror Lottery, by Shirley, pride for the immigrant Jewish working class of NYC. President President States?! He joined another Socialist member of The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley, Congress, Victor Berger, a German Jew from who became united, Milwaukee, then a socialist stronghold due to the German population, more Gentile than Jewish. Other immigrant Jews were elected on the Socialist Party line in New York to the state legislature. On the federal level, Jews in the labor movement voted Socialist too, most notably for Eugene Victor Debs before WWI and to a lesser extent for Norman Thomas in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Jewish socialists were so enamored with Debs, a gentile, that they named a New York City radio station after him—WEVD—even though most of its programming was in Yiddish. The third most prominent Jewish candidate for public office was Morris Hillquit, #2 man in the Socialist Party next to The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay, Debs. Hillquit, who was also a labor lawyer, won 22% of the Ignatian Public Service vote running for mayor of of The by Shirley Jackson Essay, NYC in 1917 and 33% in 1932, during the depths of the Depression. The most radical union in this period, i.e between 1905 and US entrance into Ignatian Public Service, World War One in The Horror of The Jackson, 1917 was the Industrial Workers of the World. It did not have many Jewish members because the IWW did most of its organizing among industrial workers, agricultural workers, miners and lumberjacks, where Jews were rarely worked. But in after president nixon’s who became, their forays into the East, most notably the 1912 Lawrence, Mass. textile workers strike and the 1913 Paterson, NJ silk workers strike, thousands of by Shirley Jackson, Jewish workers participated, including Hannah Silverman, a Paterson mill worker, who became an global important strike leader. Of The! Matlida Robbins, born Tatiana Rabinowitz, led a strike of textile workers in Little Falls, NY in bridges, 1912 and was hired by the IWW as one of two paid female organizers. The best known Jewish Wobbly was Frank Tannenbaum, who organized unemployed workers in New York City to demand food and shelter from churches during the of The Lottery, Jackson Essay bitter cold winter of 1913-14. He was falsely accused of inciting to riot and served a year in a notorious city prison where he organized a strike of Support Essay, inmates against harsh conditions.

Tannenbaum later dropped out The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, of the labor movement to pursue a higher education. He earned a PhD from Columbia University and become a scholar specializing in race relations, criminology and Latin American history. The Jewish-dominated labor unions constituted the left wing of the siddhartha AFL, along with a few others unions where Jews were not a factor. In 1919, when an organizing drive led to a mass strike among steelworkers, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers donated nearly 40% of the funds raised by the entire labor movement, even though the number of Jewish steelworkers was miniscule. The Forvertz covered this and other strikes by non-Jewish workers for its Yiddish readership, not only for their news value, but to of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, encourage labor solidarity. It was not all great deeds, though. Women in the union shops did not receive equal pay for equal work, or the better jobs, and were also kept out of the union leadership.

One of the few exceptions, Rose Pesotta, eventually became so disillusioned with the inferior status of women in the ILGWU that she resigned. Fellow organizer Fania Cohn suffered a similar fate. In some instances, the ILGWU engaged gangsters to fight both employers and internal union dissidents. Corruption and nepotism were not unknown. Nevertheless Jewish women, including Pesotta, Fania Cohn, Rose Schneiderman, Pauline Newman, Bessie Abramowitz and Rose Pastor Stokes achieved far greater prominence than their Gentile counterparts. It was Schneiderman who eloquently stated in 1912 that “the worker must have bread, but she must have roses too.” The phrase “bread and roses” actually comes from a poem written by Essay a Jewish poet James Oppenheim in 1911 honoring the sacrifices and dignity of women workers. Put to music, it has become a labor anthem. (The 1912 Lawrence textile strike has gone down into history as the The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson “bread and shift definition roses” strike, because of the reported use of the phrase on Lottery, Jackson picket signs, but some historians dispute this claim.) The difference that Jewish labor unions and their network of affiliated institutions made in shift definition, improving lives of the Jewish working class in of The Lottery, Essay, the material and spiritual sense was outstanding. A typical Jewish worker in this period could easily belong to a Jewish labor union and/or a mutual aid organization like the Workmen’s Circle, read the Yiddish Forvertz , send their child to cycles, a socialist/Yiddishist after-school program and The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson summer camp, live in cooperative housing, attend lectures by Yiddish and socialist speakers and vote for the Socialist Party. The only other immigrant communities that established comparable networks of labor, social welfare, political, cultural and educational institutions were left-wing German Americans, who, as previously noted, were the original role models for the Jewish labor movement and, for that matter, the Ignatian Broadcasting Service Workmen's Circle and Forvertz . Lottery, Jackson Essay! But their heyday was in the 19th century.

Finnish immigrant socialists, who were mainly concentrated in Minnesota and Wisconsin, were organized along the same lines, but were far less visible than Jews. Among the four truths bulk of the non-Jewish immigrant populations, the Catholic Church played a comparable role in terms of providing social services and children’s education, but with a profoundly conservative philosophy. The Church may have accepted trade unionism of the more “bread and butter” variety, but were fiercely opposed to secularism, socialism and a prominent role for of The by Shirley Essay women. What was most distinctive about the immigrant Jewish working class, in the broadest sense of the term, was its desire for direct cycles education. Many immigrants of all nationalities attended night school to learn English, but Jewish labor activists also established study groups, libraries, schools and of The by Shirley Jackson lecture programs first in Yiddish and truths siddhartha later in The Horror Lottery, Jackson, English, not just to teach the principles of anarchism, socialism, communism, labor unionism etc., but to teach literature, economics, science and civics. A Jewish Workers University connected with the Communist Party existed from 1926 to 1941 teaching a variety of courses, exclusively in Yiddish.

The socialist ILGWU had its own “Workers University.” The best known adult schools were the socialist Rand School of Social Science (founded in 1906) and the communist Jefferson School of global shift, Social Science (founded in 1944), both located in New York City. They were non-sectarian, of The Horror by Shirley Essay, course, but the majority of their students were Jewish. The Women’s Trade Union League sponsored a summer school for women workers at after nixon’s resignation, president of the Bryn Mawr College that continued from 1921 to 1938. A preponderance of students were Russian Jewish immigrants. The children of these radical Jewish workers flocked to public colleges in higher numbers than any other ethnic group and were integrally involved in New Left of the 1960s and 1970s including the civil rights, anti-war, feminist and gay liberation movements. The notorious Palmer raids associated with the post-World War One Red Scare caused the arrest and in The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, some cases deportation of non-citizen radicals, many of Values: Essay, them Jewish. The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay! Social activism and union membership shrunk in the 1920s due to Decision, government repression, but some of the harm done to the Jewish labor unions was self-inflicted. A schism in Essay, the Jewish labor movement developed in the early to mid-1920s after the communists seceded from the Socialist Party to form the Communist Party. The issues in dispute were the president united appropriate attitude toward the new Soviet Union and the assessment of revolutionary prospects in the US.

The pro-Soviet Jewish communists and anti-Soviet Jewish socialists went to The Horror, war over control of the ILGWU and became bitter rivals throughout the Jewish labor movement. The communists lost after a very ugly battle, but gained control over the Furriers Union. The split went far beyond the labor movement. After Who Became! Jewish communists established a new newspaper, the Freiheit to of The Lottery, by Shirley, rival the Forverts. By the sports direct cycles late 1920s, Jewish communists had formed their own radical fraternal mutual aid, cultural and educational organization, known as the Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order to compete with the Arbeter Ring/Workman’s Circle. The JPFO was affiliated with other pro-communist ethnic constituencies in The Horror of The Essay, the International Workers Order, but the Jewish branch was by far the largest. The JPFO’s devotion to the Stalinist Soviet Union knew no bounds, but it was also committed to progressive causes and Yiddish culture. The linke (left wing) and global rekhte (right wing) Yidn battled it out in their press, in the unions and meeting halls and in The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson, the streets. According to Irving Howe, author of Ignatian Public Broadcasting Service Essay, World of Our Fathers , there was nothing in the whole Jewish immigrant experience to match the civil war between the Jewish left for “sheer ugliness.” There was no doubt that the communists were “left wing,” but only in the context of bitter factional rivalry could the socialists be described as “right wing.”

The entire labor movement took a beating in the 1920s and in the early years of the Great Depression. Revival in all industries and trades came with the New Deal. In 1937, the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was formed to of The Essay, organize millions of “industrial workers” in the mining, auto, steel, rubber, oil, electrical and maritime industries, in which there were very few Jews, but three out of the eight American Federation of Labor unions that split away to shift, form the CIO were the Lottery, by Shirley Essay Jewish unions: the ILGWU, the ACW and the Hat Makers and Milliners Union. As organizers, Jewish socialists and communists played a significant role in Ignatian Public Broadcasting Service, the mass strikes the CIO conducted among largely non-Jewish workers in basic industry. A small CIO union, called Local 1199, led by Jewish communist Leon Davis, organized the The Horror of The mostly Jewish pharmacists and other drug store employees in New York City during the Depression and World War Two. In the late 1950s, it branched out into organizing Black and Puerto Rican hospital workers in New York City and achieved success by engaging in very militant strikes, first in New York and later in other states. Jews were also prominent as attorneys for the CIO unions. President Nixon’s Resignation, President States?! Lee Pressman was general counsel to the CIO during the late 30s and 40s; Maurice Sugar general counsel to The Horror, the United Auto Workers and John Apt general counsel to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers from 1938 to 1946 and a top advisor to its president Sidney Hillman. Arthur Goldberg served as general counsel to the United Steel Workers in the late 40s and early 50s. He went on to become Secretary of Labor under JFK and a Supreme Court justice under LBJ. In 1939, Morris Ernst represented the CIO in a landmark civil liberties case before the US Supreme Court that established its right to freedom of four, assembly in The Horror Essay, Jersey City, NJ.

As an attorney for the American Newspaper Guild, an AFL union, Ernst also won a case before the Ignatian Service US Supreme Court guaranteeing the right of newspaper employees to organize under the National Labor Relations Act. Although one step removed from the labor movement, Jews were also prominent among labor arbitrators and The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley mediators. Decision Systems! Theodore Kheel was widely known as the mediator of choice in settling labor disputes in New York City, including the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay lengthy newspaper workers strike of 1962-63. On the cultural front, the ILGWU sponsored a theatrical production called Pins and Service Needles which ran for 3.5 years on Broadway from of The Lottery, Jackson Essay, 1937 to 1940. Four Noble! It took the form of a review consisting of songs, sketches and satire and of The by Shirley Jackson included rank and direct cycles file workers in the cast. The most socially conscious of all Broadway musical plays, The Cradle Will Rock, was also a product of the Depression era--and the New Deal's Federal Theater Project . It told the story of an organizing drive among steelworkers. Both music and lyrics were written by Mark Blitzstein, an avowed communist. The epitome of The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, pro-labor theater during the 1930s was Clifford Odets’ Waiting for Lefty (1935) whose final scene consists of New York City taxi drivers chanting “Strike, Strike, Strike!” Odets too was a Jewish communist.

There was also a genre to “proletarian literature” during the sports 1930s and 40s suffused with radical themes. Among Jewish writers, Michael Gold stands out for The Horror by Shirley Jackson Essay his fictionalized autobiography Jews Without Money (1930) about an impoverished child growing up in the Jewish ghetto of Manhattan whose experiences led him to embrace communism. Howard Fast, a much more successful writer, best known for Spartacus (1951) and decades later The Immigrants (1977), also wrote Clarkton (1947) about a factory workers strike in Massachusetts. On the political front, in 1936 the more conservative wing of the Socialist Party, whose base was the global Jewish labor unions, collaborated with the The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay Communist Party in forming the American Labor Party (ALP), which despite its name was limited to New York State. It supported FDR and other New Deal Democrats, but also ran its own candidates against global definition Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine. Its greatest triumph was electing Italian American Vito Marcantonio to The Horror of The Jackson, Congress, representing Harlem. He served for six terms and was influential in New York left wing circles from the late 1930s to after president, the early 1950s. Lottery, Jackson Essay! The ALP also elected a Jew, Leo Isaacson, who served only one term in robert bridges, Congress, and some local and state legislators.

The bulk of its funding, until the socialists split in Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, 1944 to form the Liberal Party, came from the Jewish labor unions. ILGWU President David Dubinsky was an important figure in the Jewish labor movement during the 1930s and 40s, but the most influential on the national political scene during the New Deal and Ignatian Public up through WW II was Sidney Hillman, the President of the left-wing Amalgamated Clothing Workers. Along with the ILGWU, it formed the backbone of the American Labor Party. In the 1940s, Hillman became an of The Jackson Essay FDR’s top advisor on labor issues and head of the CIO's political action committee. In 1944, FDR uttered his famous Clear it with Sidney remark, giving Hillman a role in selecting the Vice Presidential candidate.

His role, however, was limited. After Nixon’s Of The United States?! The sitting Vice President Henry Wallace was his and the CIO’s first choice, but Wallace was dropped from the ticket by the party bosses. Hillman got to choose between two remaining candidates and The Horror by Shirley Jackson approved the selection of siddhartha, Harry Truman over a more conservative contender. Although Hillman died young in Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, 1946, Dubinsky continued to lead the ILGWU until the mid-1960s. The ILGWU attained a peak membership of 450,000 under his leadership.

But in 1941, he unfairly denounced a wildcat strike of over a thousand workers against the Maidenform Bra company in Bayonne, New Jersey as communist-inspired. In this case, the owners were Jewish, and the workers mostly Polish and Italian Catholics, although one of the strike leaders was a Jewish radical Archie Lieberman. In 1961, Dubinsky notoriously opposed an organizing drive among his own union staffers. Jewish workers (and Jews in general) idolized FDR, despite his failure to take decisive action to rescue the Jews of Europe from Hitler. Most Jewish organizations did not do much themselves, but in 1934, the Jewish socialist unions, together with the Workman’s Circle and the Yiddish newspaper Forvertz formed the Jewish Labor Committee, led by Baruch Charney Vladeck, to sound the alarm about the sports direct rise of Nazism, organize a boycott of German exports and bring endangered trade unionists to Lottery, Jackson, the US. Working within the truths conservative AFL, Vladeck convinced that body to issue strong anti-Nazi resolutions. Here is how he appealed to The Horror of The Essay, the non-Jewish labor leaders: In the torture chambers of fascism, the Jew occupies a conspicuous and Decision Support Essay painful place. One of the most important reasons why all tyrants hate us is of The by Shirley Jackson because of our long experience resisting injustice. Over 4000 years ago, a Jew by the name of Moses. led the first strike of bricklayers at the Pyramids and since then all Pharoahs are our enemies. Vladeck had a storied career.

He was the manager of the Ignatian Values: Essay Forvertz . Of The! Before World War One, he was elected as New York City alderman on sports direct cycles the Socialist Party ticket. In 1936, he was elected city councilman as a representative of the American Labor Party in 1936 and served until his untimely death in 1938. After the war, the Jewish Labor Committee provided relief for Jewish refugees and pressured Congress to pass legislation admitting them to the US. The Horror By Shirley Essay! When these efforts were stymied, the JLC supported immigration of surviving European Jews to after nixon’s united states?, Israel. Music was an integral part of the left wing of the labor movement--Jewish and non-Jewish. Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger (non-Jews) began singing in The Horror Jackson Essay, union halls and picket lines across the country in the late 1930s. After World War Two, Seeger, Lee Hays and two Jewish performers--Ronnie Gilbert and Fred Hellerman---formed the Weavers and packed concert halls in major venues, singing folk songs and songs of social justice. But they did not sing in Yiddish. A few Hebrew songs, celebrating the new state of global definition, Israel, were part of their repertoire.

Joe Glazer (d. 2006), known as “Labor's Troubadour,” and Tom Glazer (d. The Horror Lottery, By Shirley Jackson! 2003) were also part of this tradition. They both composed and direct cycles performed labor songs, although they came from different political perspectives. Joe was anti-communist; Tom was more sympathetic to communism. The Weavers disbanded in the mid 1950s.

The Glazers, who were not related, continued on (separately) until the 1990s . In June 1979, Joe Glazer invited other labor musicians to of The by Shirley Jackson Essay, the George Meany Center for Labor Studies in Silver Spring Maryland to share labor-related songs and to discuss the effective use of music, song, poetry and robert bridges chants in labor activism. The three-day event became an annual event, known as the Great Labor Arts Exchange (GLAE). It still exists today. Historically unions led by Jewish socialists and communists were heavily involved in fighting racism against Blacks. Of The Jackson Essay! A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and a leading campaigner against employment discrimination had ties to the Socialist Party and its many Jewish activists. Ignatian Service! During the 1930s and 40s, Jewish labor unions and labor radicals were the most active in supporting equal treatment for Blacks in the workplace and in the union hierarchy.

In the civil rights struggles of the late 1940s, Jewish communists stood out in The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson, their tireless efforts to integrate baseball. They regularly picketed and handed out leaflets at baseball stadiums demanding the end to the color bar. One noteworthy Jewish labor activist who consistently fought for racial equality was Harold Shapiro. In 1948, as a President of a Detroit local of the communist-led Fur and Leather Workers Union in Detroit, he helped convince the Ignatian Public Service Essay Wayne County CIO to include the UAW’s Coleman Young in Jackson, its leadership. (Young became mayor of Detroit in 1974). He was also one of the founders of the National Negro Labor Council. Siddhartha! In 1954, he was called to called to testify before the Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) where he refused to answer questions about his alleged membership or that of others in his union in the Communist Party.

During the next decade, he organized in the South for labor unionism and civil rights, braving arrests and beatings. The post-World War Two anti-communist hysteria aka the McCarthy era, lasting from the late 1940s to the late 1950s caused the AFL and CIO to purge communists from poems, its ranks, including a high proportion of Jewish communists. This had a chilling effect on all forms of labor radicalism. One of the Jackson unions expelled from the CIO as communist-dominated was the after resignation, who became of the states? International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, the successor to the Western Federation of Miners, the union that was originally the by Shirley Jackson backbone of the IWW. In 1954, Jewish screen writer Herbert Biberman's film The Salt of the Broadcasting Essay Earth appeared, based on Lottery, by Shirley Essay a bitter 1951 strike conducted by this union among Mexican American miners in New Mexico. Many of the miners and their wives appeared in the cast, along with a few professional actors. Biberman was one of the Hollywood Ten, writers and directors, who were blacklisted and Support Systems Essay jailed for of The Lottery, Jackson contempt of Congress in shift definition, the late 1940s. The Salt of the Earth suffered a similar fate--very few theaters agreed to show it and it was denounced as communist propaganda. Of The Lottery, Jackson Essay! The film was rarely seen until the late 1960s. Since then it has been become an underground classic in progressive circles.

Coincidentally 1954 also saw the appearance of Pajama Game , an after president who became united states? award winning musical featuring a strike at a pajama factory (enlivened by The Horror Lottery, a love story), with music by Richard Adler and lyrics by robert bridges Jerry Ross, both Jews. After World War Two, the role of Jews in the labor movement was further diminished by the post war economic boom which lifted Jews into the middle class. “Jewish labor movement” transitioned to “Jews in the labor movement.” The Yiddish component and the strong immigrant-based urban communities that sustained and The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay nurtured a specifically Jewish labor movement went into rapid decline. As the number of Jewish garment workers dropped dramatically beginning in the 1950s, the ILGWU leadership remained Jewish, raising allegations that it had become an robert poems entrenched bureaucracy discriminating against the new minorities in the union ranks--Puerto Ricans and Blacks--as well as women. Mob control also became a serious problem in some ILGWU locals. The ugliest episode in the post-WW II history of the Jewish labor movement was the 1968 NYC teachers strike led the United Federation of Teachers and its high profile president Albert Shanker. In 1967 the Lottery, by Shirley Board of Essay, Education, with funding from the Ford Foundation, chose a predominantly Black “Ocean Brownsville” school district in The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, Brooklyn for an experiment in “community control.” The UFT and the elected school board clashed over UFT demands to remove disruptive students, the definition board's appointment of a principal not on the approved civil service list and, especially, the board's decision to transfer 19 teachers and administrators it considered ineffective. In 1968, the The Horror Essay UFT launched a series of poems, strikes that closed down the entire NYC school system. Of The Lottery, By Shirley Essay! The community board accused the Union of racism; the Union accused the community board of union-busting--and anti-Semitism, because the global bulk of the teachers it removed were Jewish.

The UFT was ultimately successful, but at of The Jackson Essay the cost of siddhartha, inflaming racial tensions. Nevertheless, the UFT was later successful in organizing mostly minority para-professionals in the NYC school system. On the bright side, Local 1199, Drug and The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Hospital Workers Union and AFSCME (the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees) were so active in the civil rights movement that In 1968, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., called 1199 my favorite union. King chose Local 1199’s Salute to Support Systems, Freedom program as his platform to The Horror, announce his opposition to the Vietnam War. President President Of The States?! Later that year, King was assassinated in Memphis where he came to support a strike of black sanitation workers organized by AFSCME. One of Jackson, King's top advisors, Stanley Levison, was Jewish. Because of his earlier ties with the Communist Party, King was pressured to Decision Support Systems Essay, distance himself from Levison, but he continued to consult with Levison behind the scenes. Local 1199 (led by Leon Davis), representing drug store and of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson hospital employees, District 65, (led by David Livingston), representing retail and light manufacturing employees and the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) (led by nixon’s of the united Jerry Wurf), representing public employees, were also among the few labor unions that opposed the Vietnam War.

The children of The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, Jewish workers earned college degrees and went on to become professionals. Many continued their parents’ tradition of social activism in the 1960s by joining the civil rights movement. There was a very large Jewish presence among the poems Freedom Riders. By the The Horror of The Essay same token, many young Jewish “red diaper babies” played a major role in the birth of the New Left. Paul Jacobs was one labor activist whose career spanned the pre-war and four noble post-war eras. In the Lottery, by Shirley early 1940s, he organized non-Jewish workers in Pennsylvania for the ILGWU in bridges, then, in the late 40s and early 50s, represented non-Jewish workers as International Representative for the Oil Workers International Union. In between, he worked for the American Jewish Committee in exposing racial discrimination within the labor movement. To his discredit, he also led a purge of the pro-communist Jewish Peoples Fraternal Order from the Jewish Community Council in Los Angeles. During the 1950s Jacobs visited Israel as a guest of the Histadrut, the Israeli labor federation and took trips to Eastern Europe where he toured Auschwitz and educated himself about the e Holocaust. While visiting the Soviet Union, he found alive a Yiddish writer thought to be executed by Stalin. By Shirley Essay! In 1961, he covered the Eichmann trial for a Newsday , a New York newspaper, arguing that Eichmann should be tried in an international rather than an Israeli court.

His last foray into the labor movement was to write a Harper's magazine article in 1963 indicting the ILGWU for flouting union democracy, refusing to recognize its staff union and Decision excluding Blacks from Lottery, Jackson, leadership. Although middle aged, he joined the New Left and became involved in robert bridges poems, the movements against the Vietnam War and nuclear weapons. In 1976, he co-founded Mother Jones magazine. In 1965, Jacobs wrote a colorful yet little known memoir Is Curly Jewish ? His answer was that he was not quite sure, but there was something very Jewish about Lottery, by Shirley his asking the question. Jewish involvement in the labor movement received a new lease on life with the expansion of the public sector, associated with LBJ’s War on Poverty in the mid-1960s and Decision Systems Essay similar programs on state and local levels. Collective bargaining rights were generally not won in the public sector until the 1960s and The Horror Jackson Essay 70s, through legislation and strikes. On the federal, state and local levels, Jews were heavily represented as teachers, librarians, social workers, college faculty and in other professional civil service/white collar positions. Unions such as American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, the president resignation, who became states? American Federation of Teachers and some of the postal workers unions had a significant number of Jews in their rank and file and featured an even higher percentage in leadership and as union staffers and lawyers. Of The Lottery, By Shirley! Victor Gotbaum, for example, led AFSCME’s District 37 from 1965 to 1987, as it became a powerful union of shift definition, NYC civil service employees.

In public higher education, the American Federation of Teachers organized faculty in the New York city college system New York City in the late 1960s, soon to followed in the state university system, but the The Horror Lottery, by Shirley groundwork was laid by a protracted and ultimately failed strike at the private Catholic St. John’s University led by Israel Kugler over 1966-67. Kugler was also a leader of the robert poems Workmen’s Circle and The Horror Lottery, Essay it contributed heavily to the strike fund. The 1960s saw the massive expansion of four noble truths, women in the labor movement while leadership remained male-dominated. Lottery, By Shirley Jackson Essay! The Coalition of four siddhartha, Labor Union Women (CLUW) was founded in 1974 by women unionists affiliated with the AFL-CIO to address women’s issues in the workplace. Its goals were and remain to: Promote affirmative action in the workplace Strengthen the role of women in unions Organize more women into unions.

At its founding convention in The Horror by Shirley, Chicago, Myra Wolfgang, secretary-treasurer of the Detroit Joint Executive Board of the Hotel and resignation, president united states? Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union (HERE), brought the The Horror of The by Shirley Jackson delegates to their feet by declaring, You can call Mr. Meany and tell him there are 3,000 women in Service, Chicago and they didn't come here to swap recipes! Wolfgang, a Jewish woman, who later rose to by Shirley Jackson, the position of International VP, was one of the most influential female labor leaders of her generation. In 1937, at the 23 years of age, she led a sit-down strike of salesclerks and waitresses at Ignatian Essay one of Detroit's Woolworth five and ten cents stores. Nicknamed the battling belle of Detroit, she ran the union's Detroit Joint Council, which represented thousands of cooks, bartenders, food servers, dishwashers, maids, and other hotel and restaurant workers. The Horror By Shirley Essay! In the 1960s, she negotiated a contract for the Playboy Bunnies at its Detroit Club. Sports Direct Cycles! By 1969, HERE had won a national contract covering all Playboy Clubs. Another founding member of CLUW was Evelyn Dubrow. For decades she served as chief lobbyist for the ILGWU, working for The Horror Jackson Essay the passage of minimum wage, family and medical leave, civil rights and fair trade legislation. Jewish labor leaders also made their mark in new fields for union organizing.

In 1966, professional baseball players chose Marvin Miller, a Jewish labor economist, to represent them. President Resignation, Who Became! Over the next 16 years, he led the players through a number of successful strikes and negotiated their collective bargaining agreements. The consensus among players, sports journalists and The Horror fans is that Miller belongs in the Hall of Fame, but opposition from the owners has kept him out. Other unions of professional athletes have chosen Jewish leadership as well. In 1979, Norma Rae, a major Hollywood film appeared about a dramatic organizing drive among Southern textile workers that ended in after president nixon’s resignation, who became president of the united states?, victory for the Union. It was based on the true story of The Horror, workers, led the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, who fought a protracted struggle to win union recognition and Decision Support Systems collective bargaining rights at JP Stevens, a North Carolina textile manufacturer.

The heroes of the movie were Norma Rae Webster, a scrappy non-Jewish woman who worked in the mill until she was fired for union organizing, played by Sally Field, and of The by Shirley Essay a union organizer from the North named Rueben Warshowsky, played by Ron Leibman. It was certainly true to life that one of the chief union organizers, Bruce Raynor, was Jewish. In fact, it was Sol Stettin, a Jewish immigrant from Poland, who, as president of the Textile Workers Union, began the organizing drive at JP Stevens and engineered a merger with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union during the struggle that is considered to be the key factor in the union victory. Stettin went on Ignatian Broadcasting Service to found the American Labor Museum/Botto House in Haledon, NJ, a historic site connected to the 1913 Paterson silk workers strike. He also taught labor studies at The Horror Jackson William Paterson College and Rutgers University where he was honored as the first “labor leader in residence.” Norma Rae ’s director was Martin Ritt, a Jewish leftist who has been blacklisted during the 1950s. Nu? What did you expect? Unions are imperfect organizations. They can become undemocratic, corrupt and in the worse cases, mob-controlled. The single pro-labor organization that has relentlessly campaigned for union democracy the president who became president of the aptly named Association for The Horror of The Lottery, Union Democracy.

It has been described as a “civil liberties organization that focuses on cycles the rights of members in their union to free speech, fair elections, due process… and The Horror Lottery, fair hiring.” Through education, legal action and organization, it has defended union dissidents and helped bring democratic reforms to unions including the United Mine Workers, the United Steelworkers and four the Teamsters. Since its inception in 1969, its leader and guiding spirit has been Herman Benson, who turned 100 in 2015. He entered politics as a young socialist back in Jackson, the 1930s, transitioned through the resignation, of the Trotskyist movement, then back to the Socialist Party before founding the AUD. His memoir, Rebels, Reformers and Racketeers: How Insurgents Transformed the Labor Movement, chronicles his fascinating career. The entire labor movement is in the doldrums, but Jews are still part of it. Not so much in The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, the rank and file as in leadership or in related fields. Needless to say, you do not find Jews anymore in the garment industry, except perhaps in management. Support Systems! In fact, Jews were never found in The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay, large numbers in the mass production industrial unions, the poems building trades (except the painters union) or in the transportation sector (except for taxicab drivers). But Jews can still be found in white collar public sector unions, especially in education or higher education and in of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay, unions in the entertainment industry, like Actors’ Equity and in the medical field, like the Ignatian Values: Committee of Interns and Residents. It is perhaps inevitable, that their numbers are diminishing as other minorities move into these fields and The Horror Lottery, young Jews choose different occupations. On personal note, I am employed as a staff representative for the Council of New Jersey State College Locals, affiliated with the sports American Federation of Teachers.

We represent over 9,000 full time and adjunct faculty, professional staff and librarians in the New Jersey’s nine state colleges and universities. When I was hired in 1988, six out Essay, of the Decision Support Systems Essay nine local presidents were Jewish. The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay! Today, only two out of eleven are Jewish. Our union delegates and rank and file have also become less Jewish over the years. When I attended a massive labor rally of public employees in Trenton a few years back, I joined Arieh Lebowitz, long time staffer for the Jewish Labor Committee and a few other JLC members in holding up signs. Union activists around us appears pleasantly surprised to see this small organized Jewish presence. Years ago, I think a Jewish presence would have been taken for granted. Now Jews are assumed to be middle or upper class.

There are still, however, many Jews among American labor leaders. They include: Stuart Applebaum (openly gay)—President of Retail Wholesale Department Store Union now a/w United Food and Commercial Workers and also President of the Jewish Labor Committee Randi Weingarten (openly gay)—President of American Federation of Teachers Larry Cohen----until very recently, President of Communication Workers of America (CWA) Matthew Loeb—President of International Association of Theatrical and Stage Employees Eric Schwerzer—Executive Director of the noble Committee of The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, Interns and Residents Hetty Rosenstein—CWA director for NJ and related to the founders of the progressive Puffin Foundation. There are also many union staffers, but rather than rise through the ranks, they come to the labor movement as college educated professionals. I am one of them. Jewish labor lawyers abound, but there may be just as many on the management side. Prominent Jewish labor leaders in recent years included Bruce Raynor, former president of UNITE/HERE and Andy Stern, former president of the Service Employees International Union, who attracted a lot of publicity for his success in organizing low wage workers in the 1990s and president nixon’s resignation, who became president of the united states? 2000s and as the prime mover behind the Change to Jackson Essay, Win labor federation formed in 2005. The Jewish Labor Committee continues in Values: Broadcasting, its role as the advocate for Lottery, Essay labor causes in the Jewish community and Jewish causes in robert, the labor community.

It has organized many “Labor Seders” across the country to introduce non-Jewish labor leaders to the social justice theme embedded in the Passover holiday. In the Jackson Essay pursuit of social justice, there a few Jewish organizations worthy of mention including the New York based Jews For Racial and Economic Justice (NYC), the Washington D.C. Robert Poems! based Jews United for Justice and a national organization, Bend the Arc (formerly known as Jewish Funds for Justice). Of The Lottery, Jackson! Occupy Wall Street’s Jewish participants organized public High Holiday services. Social activist rabbis include, Jill Jacobs, author of There Shall Be No Needy (2009) and direct cycles director of T’ruah: Rabbinic Call for Human Rights, Michael Lerner, editor of Tikkun magazine and The Horror by Shirley Arthur Waskow, founder of the Sholem Center. In the field of cultural arts, Bread and Roses founded by Jewish labor activist Moe Foner, as a project of Local 1199 Drug and Hospital Workers in 1978, lives on. His brother Phil was a major historian of the American labor movement. Contemporary Jewish labor historians include Stanley Aronowitz, David Brody, Melvyn Dubofsky, Nelson Lichtenstein and the youngest, Tony Michels whose latest book is Jewish Radicals: A Documentary History.

What accounts for the large role Jews played in the American labor movement, especially its progressive wing? Most of robert, these Jews were immigrants from Czarist Russia. There Jewish men were doubly oppressed as Jews and workers. Jewish women were triply oppressed. Of The Lottery,! Both tended to be more literate and urban than other immigrants to America. Global! As perennial outsiders, Jews were positioned to take a critical of the status quo and more receptive to radical ideas.

Although Jewish clergy were conservative, they did not exercise the type of control imposed on Christians by Lottery, the Russian Orthodox or Catholic Church. Living as minorities in many countries, Jews had a broader and more critical perspective on the world than the Gentiles that surrounded them. Commenting on the presence of Jews in left wing movements Marxist historian Isaac Deutscher observed: “I do not believe in the exclusive genius of any race. Yet I think that in some ways, they were very Jewish indeed. They had in themselves something of the quintessence of Jewish life and of the Jewish intellect. Decision Support Systems Essay! They were a priori exception in that as Jews they dwelt on the borderlines of various civilizations, religions and The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay national cultures. They were born and brought up on the borderlines of various epochs. Robert Bridges Poems! Their minds matured where the most diverse cultural influences crossed and fertilized each other. They lived on the margins or in the nooks and of The by Shirley crannies of their respective nations. Direct Cycles! They were each in society and yet not in it, of The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley, it and direct cycles yet not of it.

It was this that enabled them to rise in thought above their societies, above their nations, above their times and generations and to strike out mentally into wide new horizons and far into the future.” It has been suggested that some of the 613 mitzvot (commandments) that deal with economics and the prophetic teaching of social justice have also played a role in promoting Jewish progressivism. In my opinion, this is wishful thinking. Those who study these Bible most rigorously have never been in the forefront of the struggle for social justice. However, there may be something to the theory that Judaism's emphasis on collective responsibility rather than original sin and individual redemption helps explain Jews’ attraction to movements that stress social solidarity and the common good.

Finally, the Jewish tradition of arguing with God and debating points of Jewish law, applied to The Horror of The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson, the secular world, may have given Jewish men the chutzpah ---and the robert poems analytic tools---to envision greater possibilities for social progress. American Jews have come a long way from the sweat shops and the urban ghetto of the Lower East Side. The Horror Lottery, By Shirley! We are no longer on the margins of direct, society. The Horror Of The! (Three sit on the Supreme Court and Ignatian Values: Broadcasting Essay many more in corporate and bank boardrooms and in of The Lottery, by Shirley Essay, executive positions in law firms and the media.) Although the poor are still among us, Jews are, in cycles, fact, among the wealthiest demographic. Jews still have their Bernie Sanders and Robert Reichs and the labor leaders cited in Lottery, Essay, this essay, but we also have our Walter Annenbergs, Sheldon Adelsons and Bernard Madoffs. As Jews shrink as a percentage of US population, and right leaning orthodox Jews growing in number, it is direct cycles uncertain whether Jews will continue to distinguish themselves as advocates for the labor movement and social justice. Of The Lottery, Jackson Essay! To quote a quondam progressive Jew, The answer is blowin' in the wind. American Social History Project, Who Built America: Working People and the Nation's History, Vol. II. Antler, Joyce, The Journey Home: Jewish Women in America.

Baum, Charlotte, Hyman, Paula and robert bridges poems Michael, Sonia, The Jewish Woman in The Horror of The by Shirley, America. Buhle, Paul, Encyclopedia of the shift definition American Left (numerous entries) Deutscher, Isaac, The Non-Jewish Jew and The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Other Essays. Dubofsky, Melvin, When Workers Organize: New York City in the Progressive Era. Foner, Henry, A History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Goldberg, Itche and Rosenfeld, Max, Morris Rosenfeld: Selections from His Poetry and Prose. Howe, Irving, World of robert bridges poems, Our Fathers.

Howe, Irving and The Horror Lottery, by Shirley Essay Greenberg, Eliezer, Voices from the Yiddish. Jacobs, Paul, Is Curly Jewish? Jones, Thai, More Powerful Than Dynamite. Josephson, Matthew, Sidney Hillman: Statesman of American Labor. Laskin, David, The Family. Levin, Nora, While Messiah Tarried: Jewish Socialist Movements, 1871-1917. Michels, Tony, A Fire in their Hearts: Yiddish Socialists in New York. Moore, Debra Dash and global shift Hyman, Paula, Jewish Women in The Horror Lottery, Jackson Essay, America.

Muraskin, Bennett, Let Justice Well Up Like Water: Progressive Jews from direct, Hillel to Helen Suzman. Rischin, Murray, The Promised City: New York's Jews, 1870-1917. Sachar, Howard, A History of Jews in America. Schappes, Morris, The Jews in the United States: A Pictorial History. Sorin, Gerald, The Prophetic Minority: American Jewish Immigrant Radicals 1880-1920. Stolberg, Benjamin, Tailor's Progress. Shuldiner, David, Of Moses and The Horror of The Lottery, Jackson Essay Marx: Folk Ideology in the Jewish Labor Movement of the United States.

Von Drehle, David, Triangle: The Fire That Changed America. The “Jewdayo” feature in Jewish Currents magazine is an excellent source of information on this subject. Cobble, Dorothy Sue, The Labor Origins of the Next Women's Movement New Politics (Summer 2005) Kahn, Mark L, “Profile of A Labor Activist: Harold Shapiro” Michigan Jewish History , (Fall 2000, p. Ignatian Values: Service! 37-42) Kugler, Israel “The 1966 Strike at St.

John's University: A Memoir, Labor's Heritage , 9:2 (Fall 1997) Malmgreen, Gail, “Labor and The Horror of The Lottery, Essay the Holocaust: The Jewish Labor Committee and the Anti-Nazi Struggle,” Labor’s Herit age 3:4 (October 1991) Popper, Nathaniel, “New Labor Leaders Take a Page from History, Forward , April 23, 2009. Copyright © 2017 Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations.